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robert237 Post time: 2013-3-21 05:56
I haven't got a lot to add to raton's post.
I totally agree with his statement "I found that the Chi ...
So here we are.....Surely you'd expect to be challenged right? if you care to dig further, google the bold bit.
Pathological Narcissism and Grandiose Self Defenses
It is certainly true, in a very broad philosophical sense, that human beings have more in common than not regardless of place of birth. "People are people" so to speak.
However, it is also true that cultural norms do influence upbringing practices and one's childhood experiences most certainly affect personality development. The early childhood experiences of a female child born in southeast Asia (assuming she was fortunate enough not to have been selectively aborted as a fetus, or sold, drowned, or starved to death shortly after birth), on the average, will very likely be significantly different than those born in England or America for example—although, of course, not in every case.
In addition, some people are just constitutionally stronger and emotionally healthier than others and have the remarkable ability to rise above whatever adverse circumstances life has thrown at them. Others—who at least on the surface appear to have been given every golden opportunity life has to offer—just can't manage to get their lives together no matter what.
While it needs to be stressed that not all Chinese women suffer from disorders of the self, the single-child policy combined with pervasive traditional Confucian values and beliefs in regard to the superiority of males has created a culturally-specific and unique vulnerability to the development of pathological narcissism in many of China's female population.
The following list outlines conditions that, if present, would significantly increase the likelihood of the formation of a narcissistic personality disorder and further distinguishes between closet (lower-level) and exhibitionist (higher-level) narcissism.
1.The female child is a grave disappointment at birth, especially to her father. Whether spoken or not, this leads to either an estranged relationship (most common scenario) or one that is, at best, highly ambivalent.
2.As an only child, the daughter is nevertheless pampered and spoiled, especially by her mother and grandparents. If the father is conscious of his disappointment, resentment and subsequent guilt, he too may also overindulge his daughter in an attempt at psychological undoing.
3.This combination of factors leads to a child who feels both constitutionally damaged (i.e., inadequate, inferior at birth) and, at the same time, entitled to special treatment and compensation from the world. One of two types of pathological narcissism will emerge depending on the girl's cognitive and physical attributes:
a.If the girl is very gifted academically and considered physically attractive, she will become a phallic or exhibitionistic narcissistic.
b.If the girl is only an average student (or worse) and considered to be no better than average-looking, she will become a closet narcissist.
c.Where there is a discrepancy between academic ability and physical appearance, or in the case of girls born in rural regions or to poor families, the latter will typically prevail in determining narcissist type.
4.Where the girls were fortunate enough to have escaped developmental arrest and a disorder of the self, many will nevertheless exhibit at least some of the traits listed below. Prognosis and recovery are quite favorable for this group of women, especially with treatment.
The following table summarizes the main characteristics of exhibitionistic and closet narcissists.