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English 101: Plurals [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2009-11-13 20:04:07 |Display all floors
You probably know this already but just a quick review on how some words take their plural form, here goes.

A. Titles used with names take idiomatic plural forms. Some use the English regular plural form, others use the French plural form. Note the abbreviation of the plural form.
     * Mr Smith           -->     Messrs Smith
     * Mrs Truman     -->     Mesdames Truman
     * Miss Walker    -->     Misses Walker
     * Doctor Wong   -->     Doctors Wong

Title and name combinations may pluralize the name instead of the title. Still, the plural should occur only once.
     * Mrs Truman     -->     Mrs Trumans
     * Miss Walker    -->     the two Miss Walkers
     * Doctor Wong   -->     Doctor Wongs

B. Names if nationalities are pluralized as follows:
   - Names ending with sibilants remain unchanged:
     * Chinese
     * English
     * Japanese

   - Names ending with "-man" take "-men":
     * Frenchman    -->     Frenchmen

   - Others take the regular "-s".
     * Croat                 -->     Croats
     * Indonesian      -->      Indonesians
     * Spaniard          -->      Spaniards

C. Compound nouns take the plural form in the principal noun.
     * curriculum vitae                -->      curricula vitae
     * daughter-in-law                -->      daughters-in-law
     * editor in chief                    -->      editors in chief
     * jailhouse                           -->      jailhouses
     * lieutenant colonel            -->      lieutenant colonels
     * major general                   -->      major generals
     * memorandum circular    -->      memorandum circulars
     * passerby                           -->      passersby
     * notary public                     -->      notaries public
     * personnel manager       -->      personnel managers
     * secretary-general           -->      secretaries-general
     * solicitor general              -->      solicitors general
     * waterhose                        -->      waterhoses

Except:
     * basketful        -->      basketfuls
     * cupful              -->      cupfuls
     * spoonful         -->      spoonfuls

D. Some compound nouns take the plural form in both component stems.
     * gentleman usher           -->      gentlemen ushers
     * Knight Templar              -->      Knights Templars
     * professor emeritus       -->      professors emeriti
     * woman doctor                -->      women doctors

E. Other compound nouns pluralize either one of its components, but not both.
     * court martial      -->      courts martial, court martials
     * poet laureate      -->     poets laureate, poet laureates

F. Nouns denoting quantity and used as adjectives or adverbs do not take plural forms when used with numerals.
     * ten thousand (dollars)
     * two dozen (apples)

Happy weekend everyone! :)

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