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英汉造词比较续谈(4) [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2009-4-1 11:03:57 |Display all floors
语言发展词汇丰富了,出现新事物需要命名时,尽量利用已有的词,通过词加词的方式组成新词,称为复合词。英语复合词种类繁多,形式多样,有的连写,有的分写,有的用连字符,有的不用连字符。现按照词之间的关系分类介绍如下,以便和汉语复合词比较。(材料借自“A Comprehensive Grammar of English Language” by Randolph Quirk, etc)
   主体+动词:1. 主体在前,如 daybreak (破晓,黎明),earthquake (地震),nightfall (夜幕降临—黄昏),sunrise (日出),bee-sting (蜂叮);2. 主体在后,如 crybaby (爱哭的小孩或人),flashlight (闪光灯),playboy (花花公子),popcorn (爆米花),watchdog (看门
犬,监察者);3. 动名词(-ing)+主体, 如 cleaning woman (清洁妇),flying machine (飞机),
washing machine (洗衣机)。
   动词+客体:1. 动词在前,如 call-girl (应召女郎),比较callboy (传唤员),drawbridge (拉桥),push-button (按钮),pick-me-up (毒品);2. 动词在后,如 birth-control (生育控制),blood test (血液捡测),book review (书评),dress-design (服装设计),self-control (自控),haircut(理发),handshake (握手),word-formation (构词);3. 客体+动名词(-ing),如 brainwashing (洗脑),story-telling (讲故事),dress-making (制衣),house-keeping (持家,管理家务),sightseeing (观光,参观);4. 客体+动词+er (者),如 cigar smoker (吸烟者),computer designer (计算机设计者),stock holder (股票持有者—股东),language teacher (语言教师),window-cleaner (擦窗户者)。
   动词+ 附加语 drinking cup (= drink out of a cup),living room (= live in a room),waiting room (= wait in a room),writing desk (= write at a desk),freezing point (= freeze  at a point),
typing paper (= type on paper),sewing machine(= machine with a machine),walking stick (=
walk with a stick); horse riding (=ride on a horse), sun-bathing (=bath in the sun), tight-rope walking (=walk on a tight-rope), handwriting (= write by hand ), shadow-boxing (= box against a shadow); backswimmer (= “swim on the back”), factory-worker (= “work in a factory”), field-work (=work in the field), housebreaker (= “break into a house”), moon walk (=walk on the moon), daydream (=dream during the day),gunfight (=fight with a gun),tax-exemption (=exempt from tax),underwear (= wear under others ), workbench (= work at bench),plaything (=play with a thing).从解释上可看出,有的和我们的思路不一样,如,我们是这样想的:cup for drinking with, room for waiting in ,  machine for sewing with.。
   主体+客体(无动词) windmill (< the wind powers the mill)风车,螺旋桨,cable car (< the car drawn by the cable) 缆车, motorcycle 摩托车, coal fire(<the fire made from coal)煤火,  steam engine 蒸汽机,oil well (< the well produces oil) 油井, honey bee 蜜蜂,silkworm 蚕,tear gas 催泪瓦斯,sawdust 锯沫,gaslight(< the light made from gas)汽灯,arrowhead (< arrow ’s head)箭头, table leg 桌子腿,television screen 电视屏幕, fireman(<the man prevents fires)消防员, police-officer(the officer of police force)警官, security officer (<the officer looks after security), postman, mailman (<the man carries and delivers mails) 邮递员。
   主表式 girlfriend (=the friend is a girl )女友,killer shark 食人鲨,pine tree 松树,
blackboard (=the board is black )黑板,hothouse温室,handyman 巧手,double-talk表面动听,其实废话—油腔滑调,madman 疯人, catfish(= the fish is like a cat. 鲶鱼),dragonfly蜻蜓, goldfish金鱼, raindrop (=drop of rain) 雨点,soap flake 肥皂沫,birdcage (=the cage is for bird)鸟笼,fish pod鱼池,flypaper 粘蝇纸, safety belt安全带,face cloth面巾,fire engine消防车。
   合成形容词 breathtaking(呼吸,歇气),life-giving(提神),lip-sucking (咂唇);hand-made
(手工制作),home-made(国产);easy-going(易行),good-looking(好看),everlasting (持久,耐久),sweet-smelling (好闻);airsick (晕机),carsick (晕车),homesick (思乡病),dustproof (防尘),fireproof(防火),foolproof (“防止愚笨”—极简单),tax-free (免税),air-tight(密封),
watertight(防水),war-weary (厌战);age-old (年老),brick red (砖红色), sea-green (海绿/ 蓝色),rock-hard(坚如岩石)。
   显然,合成词实乃短语或句子的紧缩,是现代语言最普遍常用的造新词的方法。通过比较不难看出,英汉语复合词大同小异。复合词的应用使表达更加细腻准确,也极大地丰富了词汇。

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