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Post time 2008-11-23 08:35:08 |Display all floors
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Post time 2008-11-23 09:33:05 |Display all floors
(This is another good posted question...)



There is a reason why the question posted here causes some confusion, because its intent is to help you learn. English test questions such as this one are meant to have you look in the dictionary and understand the meaning of specific words and their usage that could seem similar to each other. I will provide a summary of definitions (as a noun) examples...


reward = something given or received

award = something awarded, as a payment or medal

prize = something that is won

result = something that happens as a consequence; outcome


In our posted sentence, the important part that points us to the correct answer is "acts lead to". Lets look up the word "act"...

act = to produce an effect or outcome

In English we often use the term "cause and effect". An "effect" is a consequence, or result from a cause, or act (action).

So yes, you could use the word "reward". In psychology circles this word is often used as "positive feedback". However, in our posted question, there is no mention of "positive feedback".

And now lets look up the word usage of "certain"
certain = definite or particular, but not named or specified

The use of the word "certain" might make you think maybe they are talking about positive feedback, but I think the intent is from the babies point of view, such as if he make a noise that sounds like "mama", the mother will respond and not the father.
In this case, the "certain act" of saying "mama" will result in the mother responding, which we assume that is the intent of the baby's' desire. If it wanted the father, he changes his "certain act" to "baba" and the result is the father responds.

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Post time 2008-11-23 10:12:13 |Display all floors
Originally posted by pokikiko at 2008-11-22 08:33 PM

act = to produce an effect or outcome

My reasoning is that, most if not all acts will lead to consequences.  From the baby's point of view, some of its acts (i.e., certain acts) will lead to positive results (rewards), while others will lead to negative results, such as being bitten by a dog.




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Post time 2008-11-23 12:19:35 |Display all floors
Originally posted by jl2315 at 2008-11-23 10:12

My reasoning is that, most if not all acts will lead to consequences.  From the baby's point of view, some of its acts (i.e., certain acts) will lead to positive results (rewards), while others w ...


Your sentence thus shows why the answer is "results" and could not be "rewards".

"My reasoning is that, most if not all acts will lead to consequences".
consequences = results

"My reasoning is that, most if not all acts will lead to results". This is true.
"My reasoning is that, most if not all acts will lead to rewards". Not always true.



Lets look at the definition for the word "reward" as you want to use it...in the psychological sense (which is not the original posted question).

reward = (From Psychology) the return for performance of a desired behavior; positive reinforcement.

In our original sentence, the baby is not requested to do a "desired behavior". It is learning on its own.
As we see by the definition, the word "reward" can only be used in its positive sense when talking about psychology. for example...
if we use the word "reward" in the negative sense, we must choose the negative definition which is...

reward = Something given or received in recompense for worthy behavior or in retribution for evil acts.

As the original sentence is talking about how a baby learns to do things, "retribution for evil acts" does not fit the definition. (unless we are looking from the dogs point of view). We can't chose "rewards" for the positive or negative acts, because "certain acts" are "undefined acts".

When we look at the other definitions concerning "reward"...

Money offered or given for some special service
A satisfying return or result; profit.

We see the general sense of a "reward" is considered somewhat monetary or profitable in nature except under the specific definition regarding Psychology (Of which our original sentence does not mention).

If we were to change the original sentence, then I could see the use of the word "reward", but I doubt that babies are motivated by money until they are at least in their teens.

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Post time 2008-11-23 15:50:47 |Display all floors
In my opinion, either "rewards" or "results" is OK, which depends on how you view the word "learn" in the sentence.

If it means "intend to learn", then rewards is OK because reward is the purpose.
If it means "have learned", then results is OK because after recieving the results(positive or negative) babies have learned what to do or not.

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Post time 2008-11-23 22:05:00 |Display all floors
don't know the difference between 'awards' and 'rewards'
so don't know.

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Post time 2008-11-24 09:22:10 |Display all floors
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