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Anyone up for some real TB history? [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2008-4-10 18:50:04 |Display all floors
So listen.

I only came back to the forum because of what is going on, and although many are fighting the good fight against the lesser-lives that have no real knowledge about anything, I thought "What the heck? Since I have some historical info, why not see if it can be allowed?"

The following pieces come from many places - heck, all it takes is a computer and enough computer knowledge to access Google and then do a search - so suffice it to say that save for some comments, all of this is available to anyone that wants to really know the truth...obviously something many foreign governments and media stooges don't have the ability or inclination to do...so out of the goodness of my heart, I have done it for them.

This will take several posts, and some may come up before others, and there are several repeats, but since the "repeats" are actually a result of so much info being available, there is no way to strip the repeats out.

Besides, for many of the bottom-feeders in foreign media and foreign govt's., they will probably need to read things more than twice.

Here goes:

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Post time 2008-4-10 18:52:36 |Display all floors
History (in parts) of TB.

Tibet has been an inseparable part of China from time immemorial. Prior to the common era, the ancestors of the Tibetan people had contacts with the Han people living in the central plains of China. During the long years leading up to the seventh century the many tribes scattered on the Tibet Plateau gradually came together to form the Tibetan ethnic group The Tubo Dynasty.

Early in the seventh century China moved into a new stage of its history. The Tang Dynasty (618-907) was a powerful and politically united dynasty that initially established order over the shifting and chaotic situation that had prevailed for more than 300 years in China.

At the same time, the great Tibetan leader Songtsen Gampo brought together more than ten separate tribes, an event commonly seen as marking the establishment of the Tibetan kingdom, making his capital in present-day Lhasa.

Songtsen Gampo had good relations with the Tang court and Tibet benefited from the impartation of Tang technologies (advanced for the day), and was influenced by Tang culture and politics. He twice sent ministers to the Tang Dynasty court requesting a member of the imperial family be given him in marriage and in 641 was given Princess Wencheng, a member of Emperor Taizong's family.

Introduced into Tibet during this time were Chinese technologies for wine-making, grinding and paper and ink making. Sons of the Tibetan aristocracy were sent to the Tang capital Changan to study Literati from the Tang court went to the Tibetan capital to handle communications with the emperor During the reign of Songtsen Gampo political, economic and cultural relations between the two nations were friendly.

Laudatory titles given King Songtsen Gampo by Emperor Gaozong include "Commandant-escort," "Commandery Prince of the Western Sea" and Companion Prince." This pattern of friendly relations established during the reign of Songtsen Gampo was carried on during the the next two hundred years In 710 the Tang Princess Jincheng was sent to Tibet to marry the Tibetan King Tride Tsugtsen, accompanied by several tens of thousands of pieces of embroidered satin brocade, a variety of technical writings and various other useful items Princess Jincheng later gave money to support Buddhist monks from Yutian (now in modern Xinjiang) and elsewhere on their trips to Tibet to build temples and translate sutras.

She also requested that Chinese classical works such as The Book of Songs with Annotation by Mao Heng The Book of Rites, Zuo Qiuming's Chronicles and Xiao Tong's Literary Selections be gent to her from the Tang court In 821 King Ralpachen of Tibet three times sent envoys to Changan to discuss forming an alliance with the Tang Empire. Emperor Muzong ordered his prime minister to effect the alliance in a grand ceremony held in the western suburbs of the capital.

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Post time 2008-4-10 18:52:50 |Display all floors
The following year high-ranking representatives of the Tang court including Liu Yuanding were dispatched to Tibet to participate in a similar ceremony marking the alliance held in the eastern suburbs of Lhasa. Representatives of the Tibetan king included his chief ministers. This all occured during the first and second years (822 and 823) of the Changqing reign of the Tang Dynasty, and accordingly has been called the Changqing Alliance" by historians The two parties agreed to "amity as though they were of one family" and to "treat their sacrificial alters as though they were one."

An account of the alliance is recorded on three stelae, the "Tang-Tubo Alliance Stelae," one of which still stands before the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa.

Beginning around 842 the Tubo Kingdom broke up. Rival groups of ministers and members of the royal family engaged in internecine struggle. Power was reduced to the local level This state of affairs continued for more than 400 years.

In 1247 the Mongol prince Godan invited the head abbot of the Sakya order Sakya Pandita Gonggar Gyaltsen to a meeting in Liangzhou (modern Wuwei in Gansu Province). He offered the submission of Tibet to the Mongol Khanate and the acceptance of a defined local administrative system and in return the Sakya were given political power in Tibet. In 1271 the Mongolian conquerors took Yuan as the name of their dynasty.

In 1279 following their defeat of the Song they completed their unification of all of China.

In 1260, when Kublai Khan (1215-1294) ascended the throne, he conferred the title Mentor of State on Gonggar Gyaltsen's nephew Phagspa, King of the Dharma of the Sakya order.

In 1264 Kublai Khan established the Supreme Control Commisssion for Buddhism with Phagspa at its head.

In 1265 Kublai Khan honoured Phagspa with the titles of Dabaofawang (Great Treasure King of the Dharma) and Dishi (Imperial Preceptor) Following Phagspa's recommendations he appointed an official for the overall management of Tibetan affairs.

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Post time 2008-4-10 18:53:03 |Display all floors
In 1268, 1287 and 1334 the Yuan central government sent officials to check on the Tibetan population. Fifteen staging posts were set up linking communications between Tibet and the Yuan capital Dadu (modern Beijing). In addition, the conscript labour system was established and promoted in Tibet.

Since Tibet formalIy became part of China, China has seen changes of dynasty and many change-overs in the central authority, but Tibet has always remained under the Chinese central government's jurisdiction. During the mid-14th century the Sakya government gradually declined m authority

In 1354 Jangchub Gyaltsen of the Phagdru Kagyupa gained political control over most of Tibet. This political-religions government was recognized by the Yuan court and Jangchub Gyeltsen was given the title Grand Minister of Education.

With the overthrow of the Yuan and the founding of the Ming Dynasty in 1368, a policy whereby titles were widely conferred was put into effect. The head of any religious order who could claim local political power was given an honorary title such as "king," "dharma king" or "Abhisecana preceptor of state" ("Abhisecana" being a Bnddhist ceremony wherein a student's initiation is acknowledged by his teacher sprinkling water on his head) Succession to the throne was subject to approval by the emperor who would dispatch officials to deliver diplomas acknowledging the title.

During this time, the Gelug (Yellow) order, which recognized two great Living Buddhas, the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama, was gaining in prominence.

The Third Dalai Lama Sonam Gyatso gave presents to the Ming court and in return was given the title "Dorje Chang" (Holder of the Vajra) The Ming government followed Yuan Dynasty practices regards Tibet. It established the U-Tsang and the Gargain garrison command headquarters and the Olisi Military-Civil Governor's Office respectively to manage the military and political affairs in Anterior and Ulterior Tibet, Qamdo and Ngari. During this time, the Phagdru government established the dzongpon system in parts of Tibet.

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Post time 2008-4-10 18:53:13 |Display all floors
The administrative heads of each dzong (an administrative unit about the size of a county) were recognized by the Ming court as dzongpon (county magistrate) In 1644, the Qing Dynasty overthrew the Ming.

The Qing emperor Shunzhi on several occasions invited the Fifth Dalai Lama to Beijing, and in 1652 he did so. In 1653 the emperor gave the Dalai Lama a gold-leaf diploma and gold seal formally recognizing his status as the Dalai Lama. In 1713 Emperor Kangxi similarly honoured the Fifth Panchen Lama Lozang Yeshe formally recognizing him as "Panchen Erdeni." Beginning around this time the Dalai Lama based in Lhasa ruled over the greater part of Tibet and the Panchen Lama based in Xigaze ruled over the remainder.

In 1727 the Qing court appointed a Resident Commissioner (Amban) as a central government representative in Tibet to oversee Tibet's administrative affairs. Tibet's borders with Sichuan, Yunnan and Qinghai were formally surveyed and fixed at this time. In 1721 the Qing central government established the Kaloon (Ministers of Council) system in Tibet. In 1750 the Tibetan administrative system was reformulated and the "commandery prince" system was eliminated. The Tibetan local government (Kashag) was founded.

In 1793 the Qing government issued the famous 29-Article Ordinance for the More Efficient Governing of Tibet, dealing with the authority of the Amban, the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama, the Panchen Lama and other important Living Buddhas, frontier defence, relations with the outside world, finance and tax revenues, minting and administration of currency, and the support and administration of monasteries. The basic principles formulated in the 29-Article Ordinance remained the standard for the administrative and legal systems in Tibet for more than the next hundred years.

In 1911 the Xinhai Revolution against the Qing Dynasty led to the establishment of the Republic of China, a multi-ethnic, unified state combining Han, Manchu, Mongolian, Hui, Tibetan and other peoples The central government continued jurisdiction over Tibet as it had for centuries.

In 1912 the Bureau of Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs (in 191? - I forget and I didn't write it down) renamed the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Office was set up chiefly to manage Tibetan affairs. The Nanjing National Government came to power in 1927 and two years later it set up the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission to oversee administration of the areas inhabited by Tibetans, Mongolians and other ethnic minorities.

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Post time 2008-4-10 18:53:27 |Display all floors
In 1940 the National Government set up a resident office of the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission in Lhasa to function as the central government's standing body in Tibet. The Tibetan government frequently sent officials to participate in the Republic's National Congress. The Republic suffered from incessant foreign aggression and frequent internal disturbances. But despite the fragility of the central government the Dalai and Panchen lamas continued to accept its official recognition of their positions, receiving legal status in their political and religious roles in Tibet.

The (Fourteenth) D L, the terrorist Tenzin Gyatso, was sanctioned in a proclamation issued by the president of the National Government.

In 1949 the People's Republic of China was founded. Proceeding in cognizance of Tibet's history and present reality, the Central People's Government determined a policy of peaceful liberation.

On May 23, 1951, representatives from the Central People's Government and the local government of Tibet agreed on a series of issues regarding Tibet's peaceful liberation, signing the Agreement of the Central People's Government and the Local Government of Tibet on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet (known as the 17-Article Agreement) The 17-Article Agreement contains several main points.

First, the central government demanded that the Tibetan local government actively strengthen national defence and resolutely drive imperialist forces out of Tibet.

Second, the Central People's Government would not alter Tibet's current system or the Dalai Lama's inherent status and authority The Tibetan people's customs would be respected and their religious freedom protected.

Third, a total end to slavery.

Fourth, the right to education for the people.

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Post time 2008-4-10 18:53:40 |Display all floors
The reform of Tibetan society would be decided after consultation with Tibetan leaders. Regional autonomy for minority people would be instituted in Tibet autonomus region. The Dalai Lama and Panchen Erdeni separately telegraphed their acceptance of the 17-Article Agreement to Mao Zedong, Chairman of the Central People's Government, resolutely upholding the unity of the motherland's sovereignty.

Other Tibetans, monastic and secular, and local Tibetan leaders expressed their firm support as well. This date marks a new page in Tibetan history. In 1954 the Tenzin Gyatso and the Panchen came to Beijing to participate in the first session of the First National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China. During this conference, the Dalai Lama was elected as Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, and Panchen Erdeni, member of the NPC Standing Committee.

In 1956, the Preparatory Committee for the Tibet Autonomous Region was founded with the Dalai Lama as its chairman.

In March 1959, the majority of the kaloons in the Tibetan local government joined with the reactionary clique of the upper social strata launched a comprehensive armed rebellion with the aim of splitting the country, preserving the slavery and opposing democratic reform. The Central People's Government ordered the PLA in Tibet rerolutely to quell the rebellion.

On March 28 of the same year, Zhou Enlai, Premier of the State Council of the Central People's Government, released an order dissolving the Tibetan local government, and declaring that the functions and authority of the Tibetan local government would be vested in the Preparatory Committee for the Tibet Autonomous Region.

At this same time, the Central People's Government, responding to the will of the Tibetan people, implemented democratic reform and abolished the slavery in Tibet. As a result, the million serfs and slaves in Tibet stood up and came into their own, instead of being treated as the private property of serf-owners that could be traded, transferred or used to pay off a debt in kind or by labour. After a few years of steady development, the Tibet Autonomous Region was formally founded in September 1965.

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