Author: changabula

Indian Inventions, Discoveries and Other Contributions   [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2007-6-19 01:58:22 |Display all floors
My respect to you Chang *salute*

You are some of the Chinese sons that memorize and record several of earth's greatest civilizations that make what us humanity today!

Our ancestors should be proud of you.
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Post time 2007-6-19 01:59:42 |Display all floors
Binary System

A Mathematician named Pingala also developed a numbering system similar to what we refer to as the binary system. They were also the first to use 0 as a placeholder in numbers such as 809 and 89. While the Babylonians had a concept that was similar to zero, it was merely used as a placeholder and was often just a blank space.
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Post time 2007-6-19 02:01:34 |Display all floors
Originally posted by northwest at 2007-6-19 01:58
My respect to you Chang *salute*

You are some of the Chinese sons that memorize and record several of earth's greatest civilizations that make what us humanity today!

Our ancestors should be  ...


Thanks for your encouraging words, northwest.

I am doing this as a source of information.

Feel free to make any comments or observations.
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Post time 2007-6-19 02:09:02 |Display all floors
India's civilization is one of humanity's 4 great civilizations.

They existed almost as long as Chinese civilizations' and surely will attain again the greatness it already experienced before.

History repeat itself.
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Post time 2007-6-19 02:14:30 |Display all floors
Throughout history peoples of all nations have looked to India as the most creative and original of civilizations. To be specific, medieval and ancient scholars from Arabia, Spain, China and even Greece— all acknowledged their indebtedness to Indian science. For example, a medieval Arab scholar Sa'id ibn Ahmad al-Andalusi (1029-1070) wrote in his Tabaqat al-'umam, one of the earliest books on history of sciences:

"The first nation to have cultivated science is India. ... India is known for the wisdom of its people. Over many centuries, all
the kings of the past have recognized the ability of the Indians in all the branches of knowledge.

"The kings of China have stated that the kings of the world are five in number and all the people of the world are their
subjects. They mentioned the king of China, the king of India, the king of the Turks, the king of the Persians, and the king of
the Romans.

"... They referred to the king of India as the "king of wisdom" because of the Indians' careful treatment of 'ulum [sciences]
and all the branches of knowledge.

"The Indians, known to all nations for many centuries, are the metal [essence] of wisdom, the source of fairness and
objectivity. They are people of sublime pensiveness, universal apologues, and useful and rare inventions.

"... To their credit the Indians have made great strides in the study of numbers and of geometry. They have acquired
immense information and reached the zenith in their knowledge of the movements of the stars [astronomy] ... After all that
they have surpassed all other peoples in their knowledge of medical sciences ..."

When the necessary allowance is made for the exuberance of the writer and even some exaggeration, it is clear that no one until
the coming of the modern Europeans (and their Indian disciples) questioned the antiquity of Indian science. In his book al-Andalusi
goes on to give details of several Indian texts on astronomy and tells us that the Arab scholars used them in preparing their own
almanacs.

Not only Medieval Arabs, even some early Christian scholars recognized Indian contributions. Writing in 662 AD, when the
Byzantine Empire was its height and it was thought that there was no knowledge beyond Greek knowledge, Sebokht, the Bishop of
Qinnesrin in North Syria observed:

"I will omit all discussion of the science of the Hindus [Indians], a people not the same as Syrians, their subtle discoveries in
the science of astronomy, discoveries more ingenious than those of the Greeks and the Babylonians; their valuable
method of calculation [the decimal system]; their computing that surpasses description. I wish only to say that this
computation is done by means of nine signs. If those who believe because they speak Greek, that they have reached the
limits of science should know these things, they would be convinced that there are also others who know
something."

The reference of course is to the famous place decimal system using zero invented by the Hindus. (It is often called the Arabic
numeral system, but the Arabs themselves called it the Indian system acknowledging their indebtedness to India.) In fact the Greek
(and the Roman) method of computing and solving equations was cumbersome in the extreme when compared to the method used
by Indians. Mathematics as we know today would hardly be possible without this invention— probably the greatest single advance
in the history of mathematics.
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Post time 2007-6-19 02:26:13 |Display all floors
Originally posted by northwest at 2007-6-19 02:09
India's civilization is one of humanity's 4 great civilizations.

They existed almost as long as Chinese civilizations' and surely will attain again the greatness it already experienced before.
...


Yes it would be nice to see that happen.

Can you imagine how mankind will progress when India start to make contributions for everyones benefit?


India of the ages is not dead nor has she spoken her last creative word; she lives and has still something to do for herself and the human peoples. And that which must seek now to awake is not an anglicised oriental people, docile pupil of the West and doomed to repeat the cycle of the occident's success and failure, but still the ancient immemorable Shakti recovering her deepest self, lifting her head higher towards the supreme source of light and strength and turning to discover the complete meaning and a vaster form of her Dharma.
-- Sri Aurobindo

  1. http://voiceofdharma.com/books/ir/IR_frontpage.htm
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[ Last edited by changabula at 2007-6-20 07:06 AM ]
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Post time 2007-6-19 02:29:39 |Display all floors
India: Science & Technology
A New Frontier

The tradition of science and technology (S&T) in India is over 5,000 years old. A renaissance was witnessed in the first half of the 20th century. The S&T infrastructure has grown up from about Rs. 10 million at the time of independence in 1947 to Rs. 30 billion. Significant achievements have been made in the areas of nuclear and space science, electronics and defence. The government is committed to making S&T an integral part of the socio-economic development of the country.

India has the third largest scientific and technical manpower in the world; 162 universities award 4,000 doctorates and 35,000 postgraduate degrees and the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research runs 40 research laboratories that have made some significant achievements. In the field of Missile Launch Technology, India is among the top five nations of the world.

Science and technology, however, is used as an effective instrument for growth and change. It is being brought into the mainstream of economic planning in the sectors of agriculture, industry and services. The country's resources are used to derive the maximum output for the benefit of society and improvement in the quality of life. About 85 per cent of the funds for S&T come directly or indirectly from the Government. The S&T infrastructure in the country accounts for more than one per cent of the GNP. S&T in India is entering a new frontier.

  1. http://www.hcilondon.net/india-overview/science-technology/index.html
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