Author: nancy_zhao

3 Questions, thanks. [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2007-4-9 14:49:16 |Display all floors
Other than perhaps a slight difference in register, A, B, and D all sound acceptable to me.

From M-W Online:
for   conj.
for the reason that: on this ground: BECAUSE

since  conj.
in view of the fact that: BECAUSE

as  conj.
for the reason that : BECAUSE, SINCE

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Post time 2007-4-10 02:07:55 |Display all floors
Cause precedes effect in normal English.


Not necessarily. In fact, it's usually the other way around, especially when using that very common conjunction "because". For example:

I am late because my alarm didn't go off this morning.

"I am late" is the effect (not the cause).

"My alarm didn't go off" is the cause

To have the cause before effect in such constructions, we would have to begin the sentence with "because", which is not common practice.

"Because my alarm didn't go off this morning, I am late" is not common.

We could of course use therefore, so, consequently, etc to have cause preceding effect:

My alarm didn't go off this morning, and therefore I am late.

My alarm didn't go off this morning, and so I am late.

In this example we can see that "since" could be meaningfully used before the "cause" clauses, not before the "effect" clauses:

(Effect + Since + Cause) is okay.

Not (Cause + Since + Effect)

Not "My alarm didn't go off this morning since I am late".

Not "My alarm must not have gone off this morning since I am late".

This was the kind of situation I was talking about in that first sentence. "Since" in that sentence sounded to me a little like these examples.

[ Last edited by changcheng at 2007-4-9 11:53 PM ]

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Post time 2007-4-10 02:42:11 |Display all floors
Henry must have stayed up last night, for/since he looks so tired and sleepy.

This sentence is somewhat different from a simple cause-effect situation.  The complicating factor is "must have", which implies that "I think Henry stayed up last night".  And why do I think so? Because he looks so tired and sleepy.

So for this particular case, perhaps both "for" and "since" can be used?  I personally think "since" sounds a little better.


.

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Post time 2007-4-10 02:45:47 |Display all floors
Hi:
I'm not a native speaker, but i vote for D  
:-)

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Post time 2007-4-10 12:00:27 |Display all floors
The complicating factor is "must have", which implies that "I think Henry stayed up last night".  


JL, I agree. That factor seems to make all the difference. In fact, it seems to turn cause into effect and effect into cause. In which case, "since" would be fine too. I was just trying to figure out the differences in mental image caused by the different usages.

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Post time 2007-4-10 20:32:38 |Display all floors
the grammar function of linking word "for" here is to indicate a kind of phenomenon from which we can draw a conclusion INDIRECTLY here in the context.
number 2 ,you can probably also say "when you are crossing the road."

[ Last edited by ming361 at 2007-4-10 08:37 PM ]
hopefully to be a master of what I like, on knowledge

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