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In question 1, most Americans would use the answer D, since.
Leungshuren, nothing the Americans do would surprise me
Seriously, the difficulty I have with using "since" in this sentence is that it would be associated with the effect (looking tired and sleepy) , not with the cause (staying up late). And I'd say "since" would make more sense when associated with the cause. Looking at that sentence with "since" in it, I am left wondering what caused what.
It would be like saying, "He went to sleep late for the reason that he looked tired and sleepy".
I can imagine Henry looking into a mirror and exclaiming, "Oh my God, I look so tired and sleepy, so I'm going to stay up late tonight!".
However, if you had the same sentence with the order of emphasis reversed, you could say, "Henry looks tired and sleepy since he stayed up last night". Here, "since" does get associated with the cause, and therefore gives the right sense of "because".
"This effect happened" since/because "this cause happened".
Not, "This cause happened" since/because "this effect happened".
Savvy? What do you say?