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Reply #33 changabula's post
Timeline of History in Iraq |
c. 6750 BCE Pigs are domesticated in modern Iraq.
c. 3500 BCE Known as Mesopotamia, the world's first civilization developed in Sumer, a region now in southeastern Iraq.
0633 Muslims conquered Syria and Iraq.
0680 Tragedy of Karbala (in modern Iraq): Troops from Umayyad caliph Yazid I (645 - 683) murdered Husayn (c. 626 - 680) who, for the Shiites, was really the legitimate successor to the caliphate. This triggered the Shi'ites' open and violent revolt against Umayyad rule, with the anniversary of Husayn's death becoming a Shi'ite day of mourning.
0685 - 0687 Shi'ite Muslims staged a revolt in Iraq.
0750 The Abbasids assumed command of the Islamic world (except Spain, which fell under the control of a descendant of the Umayyad family) and moved the capital to Baghdad in Iraq.
0945 A Shi'ite group invaded Baghdad and the Abbasid Empire was reduced to a powerless symbol. Legitimate authority reverted to the Muslim community. Until the sixteenth century, rule of Islamic civilization was decentralized with different sects being ruled by different leaders.
0950 Al-Farabi, the greatest of the faylasufs (Arabic for philosopher), lived most of his life in Baghdad and taught that an enlightened individual could perfect his life through philosophyBaghdad
1076 The Mizamiyya mosque-university was established in Baghdad.
February 10, 1258 Baghdad fell to Mongol invaders The Mongols had tried and failed to take Baghdad in 1245. Now, after a series of devastating floods, the city's defenses were weakened, and Hülegü, grandson of Genghis Khan, led the victorious invasion. Thus began a long period of economic, political, and cultural decline in Iraq that was only overcome in the sixteenth century.
March 11, 1917 British troops occupied Baghdad, Iraq.
April 1920 At the San Remo Peace Conference of Allied Powers, French and British control over the Levant (former Turkish territory) was affirmed. Britain was given the mandate in Palestine, Transjordan and Mesopotamia (renamed Iraq, a territory created out of the Ottoman provinces of Basra, Baghdad and Mosul). France was given a mandate over Syria and Lebanon to France as well as 25% of the proceeds from Iraqi oil.
June 1920 A tribal revolt was launched throughout Iraqi territory after Arnold Wilson, the High Commissioner to Iraq, refused to allow for the possibility any amount of Iraqi self-government. Before long Wilson was replaced by Percy Cox who adopted a more conciliatory position towards tribal leaders and the prospects of self-government.
December 16, 1925 The League of Nations sets the border between Turkey and Iraq, putting the Mosul region in Iraq rather than Turkey despite the wishes of the local Kurdish population.
October 03, 1932 Iraq was created as independent state under the monarchy of Faisal I. As a condition for independence from British control, Iraq had to allow an RAF presence, give Britain land and resources, and coordinate foreign policy with the British government for the next 25 years.
September 08, 1933 King Faysal I of Iraq died. He was succeeded by his son, Ghazi, but there was much popular support among the Iraqi people for leadership under General Bakr Sidqi.
October 1936 Counting on his great popular support and promises of social reform, General Bakr Sidqi launched a military coup in Iraq .
April 28, 1937 Saddam Hussein, former dictator of Iraq, was born.
August 11, 1937 General Bakr Sidqi, who came to power in Iraq in 1936 through a violent coup, was himself assassinated in Mosul.
December 1938 Another coup was launched in Iraq by a group known as "The Seven." Nuri al-Sa'id was named Prime Minister. The following year, Nuri al-Sa'id was forced out of office by the coup leaders.
April 01, 1941 Once again, "The Seven" announced a coup in Iraq. Rashid 'Ali al-Kaylani was made head of the government and he indicated that he intended to abide by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty which set the conditions for Iraq's independence, but soon "The Seven" broke the treaty by refusing to allow passage of British troops through Iraqi territory and the government began to express support for Germany.
May 02, 1941 British troops invaded Iraq to install a pro-British government. Iraqi leader Rashid 'Ali requested German support for his government, but Germany refused to intervene and 'Ali was forced to flee to Iran.
June 1941 Despite the British occupation of Iraq, British ambassador Kinahan Cornwallis refused to allow British troops to enter Baghdad and put a stop to the looting, rioting, or pogrom that had been launched against the Jewish population. In the end, as many as 600 Jews were killed and over 2000 were injured.
May 02, 1953 Feisal II became king of Iraq.
February 24, 1955 Iraq, Turkey, Britain, Pakistan, and Iran signed a treaty pledging economic and military cooperation. This agreement was technically called the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), but became more popularly known as the "Baghdad Pact" and produce quite a bit of strife in the Middle East because many nations viewed it as a thinly veiled attempt to split Arab nations apart. It was, in fact, part of the efforts of the United States to create a string of treaties around the world similar to NATO and for the purpose of containing communist expansion from the Soviet Union and China. This treaty was open to any nation except Israel and in March, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Syria joined an alliance as a counter-move.
December 19, 1955 In Jordan, the Cabinet resigned in response to the riots that broke out in response to Jordan's participation in the Baghdad Pact - a defense alliance originally created between Turkey and Iraq against the U.S.S.R.
March 12, 1956 In response to the pro-Western Baghdad Pact, representatives from Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Egypt signed an agreement to defend one another against aggression from Israel.
December 01, 1956 King Faisal II of Iraq declared martial law and suspended the parliament.
July 14, 1958 Iraq's monarchy was overthrown in a coup led by General Abd-al-Karim Qassim and Colonel Abd-al-Salam Muhammad Arif. The coup leaders declared Iraq a republic and Qassim was named prime minister. King Faysal II, Nuri As-Said and the crown prince of Iraq were all killed.
March 08, 1959 In Iraq, an attempted coup was launched by Colonel Abdel Wahab Shawaf. Backed by units of the army, Shawaf alleged that the government of Abd-al-Karim was dominated by communists.
March 24, 1959 Iraqi leader Abd-al-Karim announced that his country was withdrawing from the Baghdad Pact.
October 07, 1959 Ba'athist rebels attempt a coup against Iraqi leader General Abd-al-Karim Qassim, but they fail. Qassim was injured and the driver of his car was killed. Later 78 Ba'athists were tried for their parts in the plot but one of them, Saddam Hussein, escaped from Iraq to Syria.
June 19, 1961 Kuwait, a British protectorate since 1899, declared independence. This made leaders in Iraq very unhappy as they long harbored the hope that Kuwait would be integrated into Iraq.
June 25, 1961 Iraqi leader General Abd-al-Karim Qassim officially called for "the return of Kuwait to the Iraqi homeland."
September 1961 General Abd-al-Karim Qassim rejected efforts to establish political autonomy for Kurds in northern Iraq and launched a major military campaign against them.
February 08, 1963 The Arab Socialist Baath Party (ASBP), led by Abd-al-Salam Muhammad Arif, launched a successful coup in Iraq. Arif was an Iraqi colonel who originally overthrew the Iraqi monarchy with Kassim in 1958 and installed himself as president of the new government.
February 09, 1963 Iraqi Premier Abdel Karem Qassim was executed by firing squad by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (ASBP).
February 11, 1963 The United States granted official recognition to the new Ba'athist government of Iraq.
November 18, 1963 The Ba'ath government of Iraq, which came to power in February of this year by assassinating Iraqi Premier Kassim, was itself overthrown by its own president, Abd-al-Salam Muhammad Arif, and a group of military officers. Arif created a new non-Ba'athist, pro-Nasserist government.
May 13, 1965 Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Egypt, and three other members of the Arab League severed diplomatic relations with West Germany because that country had established formal diplomatic ties with Israel.
April 16, 1966 Abd-al-Salam Muhammad Arif, President of Iraq, died in a helicopter crash. He was succeeded by his elder brother, Major General Abd-al-Rahman Muhamad Arif.
June 26, 1966 Iraqi Prime Minister Abd al-Rahman al-Bazzaz accepted a cease fire with the Kurds of northern Iraq, ending a 6 year conflict. Under the agreement, the Iraqi government officially recognized the Kurdish language and provided for Kurdish representation in civil government. Unfortunately, the agreement would break down by the end of the year.
July 17, 1968 Baathists once again a coup against the Iraqi government was launched, this time ousting Abd-al-Rahman Muhamad Arif. General Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr became president and Saddam Hussein was named vice president.
February 09, 1970 At the end of a three-day meeting, representatives of Jordan, Iraq, Syria, Sudan, and the United Arab Republic "affirm anew their determination to liberate violated Arab territory" from Israel.
March 09, 1972 Iraq and the Soviet Union signed a 15-year treaty of "friendship and cooperation."