Author: changabula

Human Trafficking -- What Can We Do About It? [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2007-3-12 15:55:53 |Display all floors
Child Labor
Most international organizations and national laws indicate that children may legally engage in light work.3 By contrast, the worst forms of child labor are being targeted for eradication by nations across the globe. The sale and trafficking of children and their entrapment in bonded and forced labor are particularly hazardous types of child labor. Forced conscription into armed conflict is another brutal practice affecting children, as armed militias recruit some children by kidnapping, threat, and promise of survival in war-ravaged areas.

  1. http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/fs/2005/50861.htm
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[ Last edited by changabula at 2007-3-13 03:35 PM ]
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Post time 2007-3-12 15:56:25 |Display all floors
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What Consequences Do Victims Face?

Victims of trafficking for forced labor lose their freedom, becoming modern-day slaves. They experience permanent physical and psychological harm, isolation from families and communities, reduced opportunities for personal development, and restricted movement.4 Victims are often wary of law enforcement and psychologically dependent on their traffickers. Child victims are denied educational access, which reinforces the cycle of poverty and illiteracy.

  1. http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/fs/2005/50861.htm
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[ Last edited by changabula at 2007-3-13 03:48 PM ]
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Post time 2007-3-12 16:02:19 |Display all floors
Originally posted by zglobal at 2007-3-12 15:56
seneca, seems like you owe chang an apology.
He seems to be tackling the issue in an unbiased way.


zglobal and seneca:

I hope that we can put aside our differences for this thread. I would feel terrible if it descended into point scoring.

I chose this topic because it is an issue that concerns me deeply. I am really touched by the suffering of human beings that are trafficked but feel powerless to do anything about it.

This is where I bow to those with more experience and knowledge than me. The limit of my understanding is reading about the sufferings of some individuals.
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Post time 2007-3-12 16:05:17 |Display all floors
What Is the United States Doing to Combat Human Trafficking for Forced Labor?

    * The 2000 Trafficking Victims Protection Act and 2003 Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act mandate efforts to combat trafficking in persons.

    * The Department of State issues an annual Trafficking in Persons Report that assesses foreign government actions to combat trafficking, including protecting the victims of labor servitude and punishing their exploiters. The 2005 Trafficking in Persons Report includes an increased number of countries on Tier 3 for labor violations.

          o Four countries were placed on Tier 3 for insufficient efforts to take action to comply with U.S. standards for the elimination of trafficking, including the exploitation of some workers: Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

          o Burma, North Korea, Sudan, and Cuba remain on Tier 3 largely because of their lack of efforts to address forced labor in their countries.

    * The Trade and Development Act of 2000 mandates efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor including the trafficking of children and forced child labor, as a criterion for countries receiving trade benefits.

    * The Department of Labor (DOL) produces an annual report on the steps countries are taking to combat the worst forms of child labor.

    * In FY 2004 alone, the United States Government spent more than $81 million on anti-trafficking efforts abroad to assist governments and non-governmental organizations. About 24 percent, ($19.4 million), of that amount focused in part on labor trafficking, while 14 percent ($11.3 million) focused primarily on programs to combat labor trafficking.  These programs include:

          o A partnership between the Department of State and the International Organization for Migration to reintegrate and identify children trafficked into the fishing industry in the Lake Volta region of Ghana.

          o A USAID-funded project in Uganda with the International Rescue Committee to rehabilitate children who were abducted by a terrorist organization that operates in Southern Sudan and Northern Uganda, and to protect other children from abduction.

          o A Department of State-funded project with Free the Slaves in India to free indentured servants and train law enforcement officials, provide counseling to victims, and raise awareness in rural villages.

          o A DOL-funded program with Catholic Charities in Brazil to identify trafficking routes, improve coordination between law enforcement and labor inspectors, and train police to better detect and investigate trafficking for forced labor.

  1. http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/fs/2005/50861.htm
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Post time 2007-3-12 16:14:01 |Display all floors
China and Human Trafficking

The Peoples' Republic of China is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation. A significant number of Chinese women and children are trafficked internally for forced marriage and forced labor. Chinese women are at times lured abroad with false promises of legitimate employment and then trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation to destinations throughout Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and North America, while Chinese men have been trafficked for forced labor to Europe, South America, and the Middle East. A large number of Chinese men and women are smuggled abroad at enormous personal financial cost and, upon arrival in the destination country, are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation or other forms of exploitative labor to repay their debts. They often face exploitative conditions that meet the definition of involuntary servitude. Women from Burma, North Korea, Russia, Vietnam, and Mongolia are trafficked to China for labor and commercial sexual exploitation and forced marriage.

Internal trafficking was a significant problem. The Ministry of Public Security estimated that at least 9,000 women and 1,000 children were kidnapped and sold illegally each year. Some experts suggested that the demand for abducted women was fueled by the shortage of marriageable brides, particularly in rural areas. The serious imbalance in the male-female sex ratio at birth, the tendency for many village women to leave rural areas to seek employment, and the cost of traditional betrothal gifts all made purchasing a bride attractive to some poor rural families. Some families recruited brides from economically less advanced areas. Others sought help from criminal gangs, which either kidnapped women and girls or tricked them by promising them jobs and an easier way of life and then transporting them far from their home areas for delivery to buyers. Once in their new "family," these women were "married" and raped. Some accepted their fate and joined the new community; others struggled and were punished.

Citizens were trafficked from the country for sexual exploitation and indentured servitude in domestic service, sweatshops, restaurants, and other services. There were reports that citizens were trafficked to Australia, Belgium, Burma, Canada, Hungary, Italy, Japan (illegal immigrants held in debt bondage), Malaysia, the Netherlands (for the purpose of sexual exploitation), Singapore, Sri Lanka (for sexual exploitation), Taiwan, the United Kingdom (for sexual exploitation), and the United States.

Chinese Government Efforts

In 2004, the Chinese Government funded programs operated by an NGO to reintegrate trafficked women into their local communities and relieve the stigma attached to trafficking victims. The Chinese Government reportedly allocated funds to provincial and local police departments to use in returning trafficking victims to their hometowns. Some government agencies also provided basic living necessities and return assistance. The Ministry of Public Security (MPS) continued to train police officers on how to handle trafficking-related crimes. The MPS reportedly eliminated special anti-trafficking police units and subsumed their duties into general law enforcement units but its national office for trafficking crimes remains in place.

The Chinese Government expanded its efforts to raise awareness of trafficking in 2004. The government cooperated with the Vietnamese Government and UNICEF on a mass communications effort to educate people and local government leaders on trafficking. Through its law enforcement agencies and its school systems, the government continued its awareness campaigns to warn of the potential dangers of trafficking. Posters, videos and pamphlets are distributed throughout the country.

It was Central Government policy to provide funds to provincial and local police to house victims and return them to their homes. Government-funded women's federation offices provided counseling on legal rights, including the options for legal action against traffickers, to some victims.

Nongovernmental & International Organizations' Efforts

The All-China Women's Federation assisted Chinese victims in obtaining medical and psychological treatment.

International Cooperation

In the last two years, China has been engaging with the five other countries of the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) to address trafficking. China and Vietnam have launched a campaign to curb human trafficking in 2004.

  1. http://www.humantrafficking.org/countries/china
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Post time 2007-3-13 16:19:09 |Display all floors
According to U.S. Government statistics, the majority of victims of human trafficking moved across international borders - about 65% - are trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

  1. http://www.gtipphotos.state.gov/gtip.cfm?galleryID=542&id=2
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This sign, outside a Hong Kong club, reads: "Young, fresh Hong Kong girls; White, clean Malaysian girls; Beijing women; Luxurious ghost girls from Russia."

[ Last edited by changabula at 2007-3-13 04:21 PM ]
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