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Scholar Yan Qinghuang [Yen Ching-hwang] of HK University had authored a book entitled Chinese Coolies Overseas & Manchu Officials [i.e., Coolies and Mandarins] and pointed out that British Opium War of 1839-1842 had coincided with the prosperity of slave-nature trafficking of Chinese coolies overseas, a trade that was first started by the Dutch in 17th century.
Who are the Zhu-Zai and the Chinaman?
(source: "Chinese Coolies Overseas & Manchu Officials
by Prof Yen Ching-hwang)
The Opium War of 1839-1842 had coincided with the prosperity of slave trafficking of Chinese coolie overseas, a trade that was first started by the Dutch in the 17th century. Xiamen (Amoy), a port which had replaced historical Quanzhou port, would become the first port to see the Chinese coolie sold overseas. In 1847, the British governor claimed that British revenues from Amoy was in excess of 72,000 pounds, about 3 times the combined value from all other ports, a manifestation of the slave trade, trafficking Chinese coolie to British Guana, Trinidad and Jamaica. Macau later replaced Amoy in November of 1852 as the exit port for slave trafficking when riots broke out as a result of Chinese action against a British smuggler and his coolie trafficking Chinese henchman.
From 1847 to 1875, 150,000 Chinese coolies were sold to Cuba, where they were known as 'zhuzai' or little pigs. This coolie trade was to continue well into the early 20th century.
The Chinese were sold everywhere. Peru, Pacific Islands, West Indies, North Africa, South Africa, the United States and Australia all benefited from the Chinese coolie slave trade. Chinese coolies built the Panama Railroad, the US railroads and miles of highways across the Western US. These Chinese worked hard, often under harsh conditions and extreme racial discrimination.
However, perceiving a rising threat to their western way of life from the increasing flood of Chinese immigrants, the "Chinese Exclusion Act" of 1882 barred further immigration of Chinese to the continental US. Following the acquisition of Hawaii in the summer of 1898 and Philippines in December of 1898, President Theodore Roosevelt signed into law the "Chinese Exclusion Act" to be applied throughout US-controlled islands and territories over the world. This had the effect of making the Chinese the lowest caste in society, a fundamental cause in Chinese suffering subsequent ethnic cleansing in the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia. In 1943, Chinese Exclusion Act was finally repealed by the American Congress and China was awarded a yearly immigration quota of 102 persons.
[ Last edited by changabula at 2007-3-3 12:31 AM ]