Author: changabula

Chinese Role Models and Heroes [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2007-2-4 07:40:39 |Display all floors
Lin Huiyin

Lin Huiyin (June 10, 1904 - April 1, 1955) was a famous Chinese architect and writer of the 20th century. She is claimed to be the first female architect in China

She was born in Minhou, Fujian province. From a rich family, Lin Huiyin received the best education a woman could obtain in that time, studying both in Europe and America.

She was involved along with her husband Liang Sicheng in the design of the National Emblem of the People's Republic of China and the Monument to the People's Heroes located in the Tiananmen Square.

She was in love with the well known Chinese poet Xu Zhimo when she was studying briefly at St Mary's College in London.

  1. http://www.icec-council.org/china/people-04.htm
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Post time 2007-2-4 07:42:56 |Display all floors
Li Bai

Li Bai (701-762) was also called Tai Bai or Qing Lian Ju Shi (the Blue Lotus Recluse) as his poetic name. He is one of the most renowned and admired poets in China.

A diligent reader in his youth, he was influenced by both Confucianism and Taoism. He started out at 25 to travel in the country. At the age of 42, a friend recommended him to the court. He was greatly delighted at first and eager to serve the emperor like an ancient capable statesman. But the Emperor Xuanzong only had him as a palace poet to write trivial lyrics while the emperor and Yang Guifei, his favorite imperial concubine, were feasting themselves. Unwilling to serve such a meaningless function, Li Bai left the capital in less than two years.

Then Li Bai went on with his aimless wandering all over the country. Unfortunately, he was charged of being an adherent of the rebel and sentenced to exile, though pardoned on the way. He died of illness at Dangtu in today's Anhui.

Li Bai is considered as the foremost romantic poet in the Tang Dynasty (618-907). His political ambition was spoiled, so he turned to drinking to drown his sorrows and writing, which was described as "A hundred poems per gallon liquor." His poetry is still very popular and recited by Chinese children today.

  1. http://www.icec-council.org/china/people-05.htm
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Post time 2007-2-4 07:47:17 |Display all floors
Zhu Rongji

Zhu Rongji, Premier of the State Council of China since 1998-2003, is recognized as a great economic planner because of his achievements of successful macro-economic control in the past three years.

Zhu was born in Changsha, capital of Central China's Hunan Province. He joined the Party in October 1949. After graduation from the prestigious Qinghua University where he majored in electrical engineering, he served as deputy head of the production planning office of the Northeast China Ministry of Industries. He then worked in the State Planning Commission and the State Economic Commission for years, where he was acknowledged as an official who "knows economics."

In 1987, Zhu was appointed mayor of Shanghai, China's largest industrial and financial city. His three-year term as Shanghai mayor saw tremendous changes in the development and opening-up of Pudong, and in telecommunications, urban construction and communications. For these he won confidence inside and outside the Party and acclaim from the common people.

In 1991, Zhu was appointed vice-premier of the State Council and director of the State Council Production Office. Zhu Rongji has focused his attention on tackling tough economic problems in industry, agriculture and finance.

In his first news conference as premier, Zhu Rongji detailed a bold plan for trimming the bureaucracy and revitalizing education by the turn of the century.

The eight-point effort called for a moderate economic growth rate of 8 percent, while keeping inflation below 3 percent and ensuring the stability of the national currency.

At the same time, Zhu said he will overhaul five sectors of the economy, including agriculture, banking and the tax system.

Zhu started with an overhaul of the nation's bloated bureaucracy and a 50 percent cut in the number of government workers.

With the government put in line, Zhu turned his attention to the economy and money-losing state-owned enterprises.

Zhu said, "Large and medium-sized enterprises will be lifted out of their current difficult situation and we will establish modern enterprise systems in these companies."

When Deng Xiaoping, the de facto leader of the People's Republic of China, started economic reforms in 1978, he looked for like-minded economic advisors and sought out Zhu. Deng politically rehabilitated Zhu on the strength of Zhu's forward-thinking and bold economic ideas. Deng once said that Zhu "has his own views, dares to make decisions and knows economics."

  1. http://www.icec-council.org/china/people-01.htm
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Post time 2007-2-4 07:51:46 |Display all floors
Sun Wu

The name Sun Tzu ("Master Sun") is an honorific title bestowed upon Sun Wu, the author's name. The character wu, meaning "military", is the same as the character in wu shu, or martial art. Sun Wu also has a courtesy name, Chang Qing

Sun Wu was an outstanding military strategist in the late years of the Spring and Autumn Period, and helped Ge Lu, king of the State of Wu, to realize his ambitions.

His book, The Art of War, is the earliest writing on military strategies in the world.

Some of the strategies and tactics in the book are still used in military affairs and even enterprise management, commercial competition and sports competition today.

The book spread to other Asian countries, and further on to distant Europe as early as the Tang Dynasty (618-907).

The Art of War has been one of the most popular combat collections in history. Ancient Chinese have long viewed this book as one of the entrance test materials, and it is one of the most important collections of books in the Chinese literature.

Apparently, Mao Zedong and Joseph Stalin both read this book while in war. It is said that Napoleon read The Art of War during his campaigns and Emperor William II of Germany once expressed regret that he had not read the book 20 years earlier.

Now this book has been translated into a dozen languages.

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun_Tzu
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[ Last edited by changabula at 2007-2-4 07:59 AM ]
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Post time 2007-2-4 08:01:11 |Display all floors
Wang Chong

Wang Chong, who lived in the early years of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220) was an outstanding materialist thinker in Chinese history. He developed a rational, secular, naturalistic, and mechanistic account of the world and of human beings.

Wang Ch'ung is said to have been poor ?so poor, in fact, that when studying in the capital, Luoyang, he had to do his reading standing at bookstalls. Also unusually, he could be said to belong to no school or tradition (indeed, his work suffers in part from the absence of an adequate intellectual infrastructure of the right sort). He nevertheless achieved a wide-ranging knowledge of literature (as a result, it's said, of his excellent memory), and achieved the rank of secretary of a district, though his argumentative, non-conformist, and forthright nature lost him the job. Despite this, his work came to the attention of the emperor, who invited him to court; Wang Ch'ung was too ill to go, however. He died in 97CE in the town of his birth.

His Discourses Weighed in the Balance is an ancient philosophical work that illuminates plain materialist thinking. In the book, he discusses the materialist concept of nature, refutes the idea of ghosts and elaborates on "the response between Heaven and man."

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wang_Chong
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Post time 2007-2-4 08:21:04 |Display all floors
Wang Shouren

Wang Yangming (1472?529) was a Ming Chinese idealist Neo-Confucian philosopher, official, educationist, calligraphist and general. After Zhu Xi, he is commonly regarded as the most important Neo-Confucian thinker, with interpretations of Confucianism that denied the rationalist dualism of the orthodox philosophy of Zhu Xi. He was known as Yangming Xiansheng (Brilliant Master Yangming) in literary circles.

Born Wang Shouren in Yuyao, Zhejiang Province. his courtesy name was Bo'an.

Wang was the leading figure in the Neo-Confucian School of Mind, which championed an interpretation of Mencius (a Classical Confucian who became the focus of later interpretation) that unified knowledge and action. Their rival school, the School of Li (principle) treated gaining knowledge as a kind of preparation or cultivation that, when completed, could guide action.

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wang_Yangming
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Post time 2007-2-4 08:35:09 |Display all floors
Li Zhi

Li Zhi (1527-1602) a progressive thinker. He was opposed to the deification of Confucius, arguing that it was unnecessary to consult Confucius on everything and that Confucian theory should not be adopted as the only criteria for judging right and wrong.

Li Zhi openly adopted the stance of a heretic and wrote, "I dislike Confucianism, I don't believe in Daoism (Taoism) and I don't believe in Buddhism; so whenever I see Daoist priests I detest them, whenever I see Buddhist monks I detest them, and whenever I see Confucian scholars I detest them even more." At that time, political power in China was in the hands of the Confucian scholars and the Confucian ethical code was regarded as sacred. Nevertheless, Li Zhi had the courage to advocate abandoning Confucian ethics. At the same time, Li denounced the Song and Ming schools of Confucian idealist philosophy as hypocritical, proposing a version of utilitarianism instead. In the field of literature, Li held that a writer must express his own personal opinions with the "pure, true heart of a child."

He refuted the feudal class system, opposed feudal rites and propagated equality between men and women.

His theories aroused official alarm, and consequently Li Zhi was persecuted to death.

The Tomb of Li Zhi

The Tomb of Li Zhi, is situated to the north of Tongxian County on the highway from Beijing to Shanhaiguan. The tomb was originally in another part of Tongxian County, but in 1953, the Ministry of Health established a tuberculosis sanatorium in the neighborhood of the tomb and moved Li Zhi' s remains to the current site. The tomb was renovated in 1954.

  1. http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/beijing/31030.htm
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[ Last edited by changabula at 2007-2-4 08:41 AM ]
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