Author: changabula

Chinese Inventions, Discoveries and Other Contributions   [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2014-1-13 17:40:17 |Display all floors

The Chinese were the first culture known to have used
friction ridge impressions as a means of identification.
The earliest example comes from a Chinese document entitled
“The Volume of Crime Scene Investigation—Burglary”,
from the Qin Dynasty (221 to 206 B.C.). The document contains
a description of how handprints were used as a type
of evidence (Xiang-Xin and Chun-Ge, 1988, p 283).

During the Qin through Eastern Han dynasties (221 B.C.
to 220 A.D.), the most prevalent example of individualization
using friction ridges was the clay seal. Documents
consisting of bamboo slips or pages were rolled with string
bindings, and the strings were sealed with clay (Xiang-Xin
and Chun-Ge, 1988, pp 277–278). On one side of the seal
would be impressed the name of the author, usually in the
form of a stamp, and on the other side would be impressed
the fingerprint of the author. The seal was used to show
authorship and to prevent tampering prior to the document
reaching the intended reader. It is generally recognized
that it was both the fingerprint and the name that gave the
document authenticity.

The fingerprint impressed into the clay seal is a definite
example of intentional friction ridge skin reproduction as
a means of individualization. It is clear that the Chinese
understood the value of friction ridge skin prior to the
Christian era (Laufer, 1912, p 649).

After the invention of paper by the Chinese in A.D. 105, it
became common to sign documents using friction ridge
skin. It was standard practice in China to place an impression—
either palmprints, phalangeal (lower finger joint)
marks, or fingerprints—on all contract-type documents
(Xiang-Xin and Chun-Ge, 1988, pp 282–284). In A.D. 650,
the Chinese historian Kia Kung-Yen described a previously
used means of identification, writing, “Wooden tablets
were inscribed with the terms of the contract and notches
were cut into the sides at the identical places so that the
tablets could later be matched, thus proving them genuine;
the significance of the notches was the same as that of the
fingerprints of the present time” (Ashbaugh, 1999, p 17).

The use of friction ridge skin impressions in China continued
into the Tang Dynasty (A.D. 617–907), as seen on land
contracts, wills, and army rosters. It can be postulated that
with the Chinese using friction ridge skin for individualization
and trading with other nations in Asia, these other
nations might have adopted the practice. For example, in
Japan, a “Domestic Law” enacted in A.D. 702 required the
following: “In case a husband cannot write, let him hire another
man to write the document and after the husband’s
name, sign with his own index finger” (Ashbaugh, 1999,
p 17–18; Lambourne, 1984, p 24).

Overall ranking from the top in math scores are
1.Shanghai (China)
2. Singapore
3. Hong Kong
4. Taiwan
5. South Korea

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Post time 2014-1-28 03:50:55 |Display all floors
Ancient Chinese used bamboo sticks as calculator                       



Approximately 2,300 years ago the ancient Chinese wrote the world's oldest decimal multiplication table on bamboo sticks. According to experts, it was a very effective calculator that let one do the calculations not only with integers but also fractions. No country in the world had similar calculators at that time.

Five years ago, Beijing Tsinghua University received a gift of nearly two and a half thousand dirty and moldy bamboo sticks. Most likely, they were found by raiders of ancient tombs and then sold at a market in Hong Kong. According to radiocarbon analysis, this artifact was created in about 305 BC, which corresponds to China's Warring States period.

Despite the military conflicts, this historical period (481, 475 or 453-221 BC) is characterized by flourishing trade and commerce, spread of iron tools, construction of large irrigation projects, development of agriculture, and population growth. At that time groups of educated citizens professionally engaged in intellectual work have emerged. The Warring States period is often identified with the "golden age" of Chinese philosophy. This period immediately preceded the formation of the Qin Empire.

According to the information on Nature portal, each strip is 12.7 mm wide and up to half a meter long. From top to bottom they are covered with ancient writing. According to Chinese historians, this important artifact has 65 ancient texts written in black ink. Due to the fact that the threads connecting pages into a single manuscript scroll have decayed, and some bamboo sticks have disappeared and others have been broken, the transcript of texts turned into a real puzzle for the researchers.

Scientists noticed a "canvas" consisting of 21 bamboo strips inscribed only with numbers. As suggested by Chinese mathematicians, it was the oldest known multiplication tables in the world. When the strips are placed properly, one will notice that the top line and the rightmost column contain the same 19 numbers arranged from right to left and top to bottom, respectively: 0.5, integers from one to nine, and the numbers dividable by 10, from 10 to 90.

Like in modern decimal multiplication table, the numbers at the intersection of each row and column are the results of multiplication of relevant numbers. The table can also be used to multiply any integer or integer and a half from 0.5 to 99.5. According to a working version, the numbers not represented in the table first have to be broken down into components. For example, 22.5 × 35.5 can be transformed as follows: (20 + 2 + 0.5) x ( 30 + 5 + 0.5 ). To solve this problem one should perform nine multiplications 20 × 30, 20 × 5 20 × 0.5, 2 × 30 and so on. The end result will be the sum of these results. This is quite an effective ancient calculator.

Science historians note the antiquity of Chinese mathematical practice, but are quite careful in the description of the mathematical theory of the ancient Chinese. Among the earliest known Chinese mathematical treatises there are "The Arithmetical Classic of the Gnomon" (Zhou Bi Suan Jing) and "Mathematical treatise in nine sections " (Chiu Chang Suan Shu) that date back to 5-2 and 3-1 centuries BC, respectively. Some scientists mention possible contacts of Chinese mathematicians with Indian ones, but it happened much later, in 5-7 century.

Likely the discovered multiplication table was used by Chinese officials to calculate the area of land, counting crop yields or taxes. This calculator can also be used for division and extracting square roots. However, modern scientists are not sure whether such complex operations were performed in that era. In any event, according to the historian of mathematics at New York University Joseph Dauben, this is the earliest artifact of a decimal multiplication table in the world.

The American scientist is confident that the ancient Chinese used complex arithmetic in theoretical and commercial purposes in the era of the Warring States. This happened before the first emperor Ying Zheng who unified the entire China and took the title of Qin Shi Huang (first Huang of the Qin Dynasty). Later, he ordered to burn many books and banned private libraries in an attempt to reverse the country's intellectual tradition.

Until now, a text dating back to the Qin Dynasty (221-206 years BC) was considered the oldest Chinese multiplication table. It is a series of short sentences, for example, "six eight forty eight." It contained only the simplest multiplications. Multiplication tables of ancient Babylon are much older. They are approximately 4,000 years old, but a set of tables used for multiplication was bulky, with separate tables for multiplication by 1-20, 30 ... 50

No calculations were possible without a large library of tables in Babylon. Furthermore, they did not have a decimal multiplication table. In Europe the first multiplication tables appeared only during the Renaissance era.

Igor Bukker


Overall ranking from the top in math scores are
1.Shanghai (China)
2. Singapore
3. Hong Kong
4. Taiwan
5. South Korea

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Rank: 4

Post time 2014-2-10 04:52:53 |Display all floors
China's Inventiveness has not ended. It may have only just begun

Now China is finally recovering and once again taking its rightful place in the world.

China is back on track to continue where it left off 200 years ago. Today, China is putting men in space, has built a space station that functions well, and plans to put men on the moon. This is all done without Western technology, since the West won't share.

China is building its own GPS system, again with entirely home-grown technology, and has built a submersible that can descend below 7,000 meters into the sea. Only one other nation can do that, and China didn't get their help.

China leads the world in HSR train technology, and is rapidly developing its own aircraft industry and supersonic missile technology.

China leads the world in the human genome mapping, and is rapidly progressing in a long list of other fields, not only catching up to the West but close to surpassing it.

China's large-scale engineering skills are second to none in the world today. China built a computer that was 150% faster than the fastest in the world - with an entirely Chinese-developed operating system.

China already leads the world in cat-scan technology and in DNA mapping and synthesising, also in many medical fields such as laser eye surgery and cornea transplants.

The only thing that might derail China's rise is the very real danger of the US starting yet another competitive "war of liberation" in blind pursuit of its stated objective of full-scale global dominance.
Overall ranking from the top in math scores are
1.Shanghai (China)
2. Singapore
3. Hong Kong
4. Taiwan
5. South Korea

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Rank: 4

Post time 2014-2-10 05:03:25 |Display all floors
The Remarkable History of Chinese Invention: Why was China Erased From Western Memory?.

A Brief Catalog of Chinese Invention: 60% of Basic Knowledge Originated in China.

China's Armillary Spheres: 3,500-year-old Wonders of the World.

中国的经纬仪领域: 3,500 岁的世界奇迹.

Ancient Irrigation System From 256 B.C.: Stands the Test of Time - and Earthquakes.

China’s Accomplishments: A Short List of Recent Developments.

中国的成就: 最近的事态发展的简短列表 一个简短列表最近的事态发展.

Chinese Innovation - Business Models You've Never Even Heard Of.

Chinese Scientific Research Center Has Built the Fastest Computer Ever Made.

Volkswagen Aqua: A Beautiful Chinese-designed Hovercraft.

大众汽车 Aqua 气垫船: 一位美丽的中国设计的气垫船.

China's High-Speed Trains: Romantic, Comfortable, and Superior to Flying.

China's New Submersible: Diving into an Ocean of Elite Nations.

Unwired: China's Mobile Phone System is the World's Best.

China: Rise, Fall and Re-Emergence as a Global Power: Some Lessons from the Past - By James Petras.

China’s Rise, America’s Fall: Why Nations Fail - by Ron Unz.
Overall ranking from the top in math scores are
1.Shanghai (China)
2. Singapore
3. Hong Kong
4. Taiwan
5. South Korea

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Post time 2014-2-10 05:41:55 |Display all floors
Here is a short list of recent accomplishments:

China has:

Put men into space
Designed and started construction of its own space station
Is completing its own GPS Satellite System
Has the world's fastest trains and the largest HSR track network
Built the world's largest dam
The world's longest bridges
The most undersea tunnels
Built two series of commercial aircraft that now compete with Boeing
Designed and built two fully electric aircraft now on sale in the US
Designed and built a series of 4-passenger flying boats
Designed and built the world's second-deepest submersible
Designed and built the world's fastest computer - 1.5 times faster than the Jaguar in the US - due to a Chinese-designed O/S
Had an increase in GNP of 10% p.a. for 30 years
Brought 400 million people out of poverty in only 30 years
Created what is already the world's largest middle class
Created the largest (and best-funded) banks in the world
Become the second-largest economy in the world (soon to be first)
Surpassed Japan for the number of patents issued annually
Been leading the world in cat-scan technology
Been leading the world in DNA mapping and synthesising
Leads the world in green energy technology - all home-grown
Leads the world in electric car and battery technology
Become the biggest market in the world for luxury goods
Become the largest auto market in the world
Leads the world in laser eye surgery and cornea transplants
Has the highest number of English-speaking people in the world

According to PEW Research, 86% of the population happy with their government and economic system, compared to 23% for the US
According to the Edelmann Institute, 88% of Chinese trust their government, compared to less than 40% for the US

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Post time 2014-2-11 08:53:42 |Display all floors
China surpassed Russia and the U.S. in space exploration
February 8, 2014

South Korea - a member of the elite cosmic club. Mars is exploited by India. The Moon, by China. These are the stages of penetration of Asia in space in 2013.

South Korea succeeded on the third attempt to launch a missile of its cosmodrome. Indian probe Mangalyaan, bears the national apparatus to photograph Mars and its satellites, was launched from an Indian cosmodrome aboard an Indian missile. And the Chinese lunar vehicle "Jade Rabbit" (Yutu), runs from Dec. 15 successfully the Moon's surface at a speed of 200 meters schedules.

The "Jade Rabbit" studying the geology of the Moon Panoramic photographs of the Moon, he was sent to Earth, are higher than the photos made ​​by former Russian and American probes quality.

The Chinese lunar vehicle, powered by solar cells, will work three months. It is equipped with cameras and radar that enable peer into the lunar soil to a depth of several hundred meters. All this is the result of a whole stage of development of space science in China - ensures the expert of the Institute of the Far East Alexander Larin:

"It is a great achievement of China's astronautics, proof of leap in the development of more modern space technologies. Some consider the world that China is only able to copy other people's technology. But Chinese demonstrated that the actual situation is completely different. You can expect China to realize its dream coming to be not only the world's largest economy, but also the leader of technological progress. "

Module Tiangong-1 Chinese space station

Judging by everything, the "Jade Rabbit" is a purely Chinese unlike the Chinese manned spacecraft work which had been designed on the basis of the spatial experience of the Soviet Union. The general director of the company JC Group Evgueni Tchernyakov believes that Russia and China have a new field for cooperation in outer space:

"China develops its rocket very quickly. At this stage, Russia could join forces with China, maintaining its technological and scientific advances regarding this country. An example is complicated projects that are very costly to the budget at the national level. Russia and China have the objective necessity to collaborate. China received much of Russia to develop its rocket and continues to receive, allowing you to reduce the time of creation of elements of the spatial structure ".

The academician of the Russian Academy of Cosmonautics Igor Marinin, editor - chief of Cosmonautics News magazine, points out the Russian projects - more on prospective Chinese cosmic sphere:

"Collaboration can be in research and processing of information coming from the scientific satellites. It would be very useful to join the Chinese navigation system Bei Dou with the Russian GLONASS system. The increase in power will provide great benefits to both countries. In Russia this program will be funded as well: once in the years ten new satellites, designed to investigate the earth will arise. The Chinese also have good research in this sector. As for piloted flight, the more likely that there is no collaboration. China has enough cosmonaves own and does not need, unlike the Europeans and Japanese, who have not ridden cosmonaves, conduct space flights with Russia. "

The first landing on the moon, created in the XXI century has publications on China's intention to establish a military base on this planet emerge. The director of the Research Center sociopolitical Vladimir Evseev think this information is just a "balloon" but any attack on the cosmos always has a "second intention":

"I do not believe it is possible to care exclusively for peaceful space exploration without thinking, or if you can not install the weapons there. I believe that we must always see a "second intention" in China's space achievements. All the more so today this country can offer greater resistance to the U.S. in the cosmos. China knows that the U.S. army is deprived of support from space, will lose their main advantage. It is in view of the lock and communication systems aim of channels. China prepares for it with as much persistence. It is very likely that it will create similar systems that reduce to zero this U.S. advantage. "

In 2013 China put into orbit 20 spacecraft. In the opinion of Vladimir Evseev the overwhelming majority of satellites have a dual function.
Overall ranking from the top in math scores are
1.Shanghai (China)
2. Singapore
3. Hong Kong
4. Taiwan
5. South Korea

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