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Russia is the largest country on earth, covering 17,075,000 square kilometres. Occupying the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia, Russia is washed by the Arctic Ocean on the north and the Pacific Ocean on the east. To the west and south-west, the country has exits to the Atlantic Ocean. Russia spreads over eleven time zones. When it is midnight in Moscow, it is ten o’clock in the morning on the islands of the Bering Sea. |
The Russian plain extends throughout the western part of the country, as far as the Urals, which run from the Arctic Ocean to the steppes of Kazakhstan. Beyond the Ural Mountains stretches the West Siberian plain. To the east, between the River Lena and River Yenisei, is the Central Siberian Plateau.
The first Russian national anthem was written by composer Prince Alexander Lvov李沃夫and poet Vasily Zhukovsky. Composed in December 1833, it began with the words God, save the Tsar. In 1918, The Internationale was adopted as the official song of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, later becoming the anthem of the Soviet Union. On 1 January 1944, the new Soviet anthem was played for the first time on the radio. The music was written by composer Alexander Alexandrov and the words were written by poets Sergei Mikhalkov and Gabriel El-Registan. The current national anthem uses the same music with a revised text.
俄罗斯的第一首国歌是由作曲家亚历山大•李沃夫亲王谱曲、由诗人茹科夫斯基填词。 国歌于1833年12月创作完成的，开始采用的歌词是“天佑沙皇”。 1918年，《国际歌》被采用为俄罗斯苏维埃联邦社会主义共和国的国歌，后来也就成了苏联的国歌。 1944年元月1日，新的苏联国歌首次在广播上播放。音乐由作曲家亚历山大•亚历山德罗夫谱写，歌词由诗人谢尔盖•米哈尔科夫和葛布列•艾尔瑞杰斯坦合作填词。当前的国歌采用了同样的音乐，但歌词做了修改。
The first official coat of arms was adopted by Grand Prince Ivan III in the late fifteenth century. In May 1857, the national emblem became a double-headed eagle accompanied by symbols of the various territories of the Russian Empire. The Soviet coat of arms was a globe surrounded by wheatears and ribbons inscribed with the words Workers of the World Unite in the languages of the fifteen national republics. The current coat of arms is a shield and golden double-headed eagle with two crowns holding an orb and sceptre.
1. Flag of the Russian Federation俄罗斯联邦旗
2. Coat of arms of the Russian Federation 俄罗斯联邦的盾徽
3. On the state border国界
4. The Russian constitution was
The Russian plain is bordered on the south by the Caucasian mountain range. The Rivers Ob and Yenisei flow into the Arctic Ocean from the Altai and Sayan Mountains.
The Sayan Range is bordered on the east by the mountains of the Baikal region. The Verkhoyansk and Chersky Ranges lie to the east of the Central Siberian Plateau. In the Far East, the Sikhote-Alin Range runs parallel to the shore of the Pacific Ocean. The Kamchatka peninsula is also mountainous.
The State structure of the Russian Federation is defined by the Constitution passed on 12 December 1993. The Head of State of Russia and the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces is the President, who is elected for a four-year term by secret ballot based on general egalitarian and direct voting law. The Russian State legislative body is the bicameral Federal Assembly (Council of the Russian Federation and the Russian State Duma). Executive powers are held by the Government of the Russian Federation. The Chairman of the Government is appointed by the President with the agreement of the State Duma. According to official figures on 1 January 2000, Russia is inhabited by 145.9 million people and 130 nationalities.
俄罗斯联邦的国家机构是根据1993年通过的联邦宪法进行确定的。 俄罗斯国家的元首和武装部队最高总司令为总统，且总统根据投票平等和直接投票法秘密投票选举产生，其任期为四年。俄罗斯国家立法机关为两院制联邦议会（俄罗斯联邦议院和俄罗斯国家杜马）。俄罗斯联邦政府是俄罗斯联邦的执行权力机构。政府主席由总统和国家杜马协商一致任命。 根据2000年的官方数字，俄罗斯的居民总数达1.459亿，共有130民族。
78.5% of the population lives in the European half of the country. The overwhelming majority of citizens are Russians. 78.5%的人口都生活在国家的欧洲部分。居民的绝大多数为俄罗斯人。
Please translate pages 8-9 42-45 and 184-185 for test first.
Sergiev Posad does not rank among the oldest towns of the Golden Ring, but it occupies an exceptionally prominent place in Russian culture and history. The very name of the town, meaning Sergius’s Settlement, has a profound sense it is associated with Russia’s most brilliant spiritual leader St Sergius of Radonezh, the saint of the Orthodox Church revered in Russia for many centuries. St Sergius founded in this area a secluded monastic abode. Soon the skete grew into a monastery and a settlement developed around it. The settlement gathered all sorts of people related to the life of the monastery, especially craftsmen, who laid the beginnings of some famous artistic handicrafts flourishing at Sergiev Posad and around it to this day. The picturesque complex of buildings of the Holy Trinity Monastery, or Laura, of St Sergius (laura is one of a few Russia’s most important monasteries to which even the Tsars thought it honourable to make a pilgrimage on foot), which has organically blended with the lovely surrounding scenery, has been shaped in the course of several centuries. The earliest of its structures date back to the early Middle Ages, while one of the latest, the bell-tower, to the 18th century. The vertical竖杆of the Baroque巴洛克风格的bell-tower thrusting upwards does not clash with the whole.
谢尔盖耶夫颇沙德并不在金环古老城镇之列，但是它却在俄罗斯文化和历史中占据相当显著的地位。该镇的名字意思为瑟古斯居地，且意义深远，因为它和俄罗斯最杰出的精神领袖和许多世纪以来都在俄罗斯受到尊敬的东正教会圣人圣塞固斯斯息息相关。圣塞吉阿斯在该地区修建了一所隐僻的僧侣院。 不久僧侣团体发展成为修道院， 而且在修道院周围集聚定居下来。居住区集聚了各式各样的人们，他们的生活都与修道院有关系， 特别是手工艺人，他们为谢尔盖耶夫颇沙德的一些著名的艺术手工艺的繁荣奠定了基础。至圣三位一体修道院景色如画结构，或叫作圣塞固斯的劳拉修道院 (劳拉修道院是俄罗斯最重要的为数不多的俄罗斯修道院，甚至沙皇都认为其可敬， 并徒步前往朝拜) ，该修道院经过若干世纪才具有如此的规模，先已和周围的美丽的风景有机地融为一体。修道院最初的结构可追索到中世纪， 而离现今最近的一个建筑物钟楼也客追索到18世纪。巴洛克风格钟楼上的竖杆高耸空中，与整个建筑物也很协调。