Views: 7374|Replies: 12

又得和丁教授抬一杠了:“稳健的财政政策和货币政策” [Copy link] 中文

Rank: 6Rank: 6

Post time 2006-11-3 09:00:02 |Display all floors
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/lan ... /content_721849.htm

如何翻译“稳健的财政政策和货币政策”
[ 2006-11-01 10:47 ]


作者:丁衡祁 陈小全

在去年十一月召开的中央经济工作会议上,决定今年要实行稳健的财政政策和货币政策,这标志着实施已近7年的积极财政政策调整了取向。对于“稳健的财政政策和货币政策”的英译,许多媒体都是用prudent fiscal and monetary policies 来表达的:

1. A high-level meeting of the Community Party of China (CPC) held Wednesday set the tone for China's economic policy next year, declaring that China will exercise prudent fiscal and monetary policies in 2005.

2. The policy shift from 'proactive to prudent' fiscal and monetary policies was made 'to conform with changes in China's macro-economic situation and consolidate the achievements of macro-control,'

3. China's proactive fiscal policy, in place since 1998, has resulted in seven years of world-stunning economic growth. A prudent policy is the logical choice to curb overheating of the economy, maintain steady development and improve the efficiency of the economy.

4. China has begun to shift to a prudent financial policy for economic development after having adopted a proactive fiscal policy for securing sustainable growth during the past seven years.

5. In line with the prudent policy, the Chinese government will cut budget deficit and public investment, reform expenditure structure and push financial reform while carrying out macro-control measures, he said.

但是,prudent(谨慎)有消极保守的意思:Definition of PRUDENT: careful and sensible; marked by sound judgment; "a prudent manager"; "prudent rulers"; "prudent hesitation"; "more prudent to hide than to fight"

1. US prudent policy about climate change:(谨慎且消极的态度)The US Administration has come under criticism within many European countries and within the American community of environmentalists for adopting what is considered to be too relaxed a view toward the question of global climate change, more particularly toward the prospect of a substantial warming of the surface of the earth sometime during the next century.

2. Prudent fiscal policy spells economic recovery (带动经济的复苏)

“谨慎的财政政策”的说法在国外也能找到依据。例如,“谨慎的财政政策是新加坡经济管理的重要特征。虽然有更大的开支压力和较紧的预算,但我们必须保持这个谨慎的财政政策。”

那么,稳健的财政政策是什么呢?财政部长金人庆支出:“实行稳健的财政政策(也就是经济学讲的中性财政政策),主要是要服从服务于改革发展大局,服从服务于中央宏观调控大局,宏观上既要防止通货膨胀的苗头继续扩大,又要防止通货紧缩的趋势重新出现;既要坚决控制投资需求膨胀,又要努力扩大消费需求;既要对投资过热的行业从紧,又要着力支持经济社会发展中的薄弱环节。政策核心是松紧适度,着力协调,放眼长远。具体说来,要注重把握'控制赤字、调整结构、推进改革、增收节支'十六个字。”

中性是指有增有减,有保有压,松紧适度,既不过快也不过慢,既不过高也不过低,这是稳健财政政策的重要特征。国家发改委宏观经济研究院副院长王一鸣说:“我理解的稳健是它既不同于过去的积极财政政策那样的扩张,也不同于紧缩型财政政策那样一种收缩,而是从过去积极财政政策的轨道上逐步地退下来,也就是说要逐步减少它的扩张力度。……经济保持一种稳定发展的格局,既不过快也不过慢,既不过高也不过低。…… 稳健的财政政策并不是从扩张转向紧缩,也不意味着对经济支持力度的减弱,它的核心是松紧适度,促进经济健康平稳运行。”

英语中sound policy的含义:If sound policy is to be formulated, the issues will be decided on the basis of three criteria: Is the proposed matter feasible? (Can it be done?) Is it advisable? (Should it be done?) Is it efficient? (What is the cost-benefit ratio?) The policy will be sound if those questions are answered affirmatively, or if a satisfactory compromise based on the criteria is made.

从以上的解释不难看出,英语中的sound policy同汉语中的“稳健政策”是比较吻合的。因为它是以可行性、必要性和效益性这“三性”要求为前提的。

Sound Monetary Policy Supports a Healthy Economy.

Sound Fiscal Policy Spurs Economic Growth

European Central Bank president Jean-Claude Trichet said that sound fiscal policies would help the ECB to keep interest rates relatively low.

The governor has highlighted the main objectives of any sound monetary policy - the maintenance of price stability and stability of the external value of the domestic currency.

A sound monetary and fiscal policy framework has to be complemented by structural policies that make the economy more flexible and dynamic.

积极的财政政策和稳健的货币政策也可以带动经济的复苏,而不是促进经济的增长或发展,例如:

China's pro-active fiscal policies and sound monetary policies have contributed to the overall recovery of economy. 实施积极的财政政策和稳健的货币政策对我国经济的全面复苏的促进作用。

Sustaining Economic Recovery through Sound Monetary Policy

由此看来,“稳健”(sound)和“谨慎”(prudent)是可以交替使用的,只是前者更为可取。孙学工在他的《财政赤字政策的选择》一文中指出:“应根据我国具体情况并参照相应的国际经验,建立起适合中国国情的、满足当前发展阶段需要的、且又是充分谨慎的财政政策规则。…… 其实更应改为"谨慎的财政政策”。政府之所以选择“稳健”,只是为了寻求一种平衡与引导,从中可以看到政府的用心良苦,其实怎么说都是无所谓的,大家知道怎么做就是了。”

顺便提一下,在互联网的语料库里,Sound policy 的例子比较多,Prudent policy的例子比较少,而Cautious policy的例子则很难找到。

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 6Rank: 6

Post time 2006-11-3 09:06:05 |Display all floors
丁教授的意思是说:稳健的财政政策和货币政策,媒体原来都译为 prudent policy,这个 prudent 不是不对,不过最好用 sound policy。

丁教授这次胆子小些了,没敢说 prudent  用得“不恰当”,只是说例子较少,很难找到。

不过我认为丁教授的“理论”还是不成立。

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 6Rank: 6

Post time 2006-11-3 09:14:49 |Display all floors
要想准确翻译,首先要弄清中文的含义。

稳健的财政政策和货币政策,是针对早些年的“积极的”财政政策和货币政策来的。

什么叫“积极的”财政政策和货币政策?其实就是“扩张性”,英文就是 expansionary 。就是目的是为了促进经济扩张,加快发展速度。再说具体点,就是国家财政增加投资,银行增加货币供应,促进经济景气。因为“扩张”这个词不太好听,所以中国人自己造了个“积极的”政策代替“扩张的”政策。这不是我自己造出来的,而是权威部门私下的解释,具体来源我就不便在这里透露了。

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 6Rank: 6

Post time 2006-11-3 09:24:39 |Display all floors
与扩张性政策相对的,是“紧缩性”政策,简单说就是紧缩银根,减少政府投资,减少货币供应,给经济降温。英文是 contractionary fiscal and monetary policies.

显然,中国现在的财政政策和货币政策还不是“紧缩性”的,所以中文用了个“稳健的”政策。

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 6Rank: 6

Post time 2006-11-3 09:33:30 |Display all floors
英语中sound policy的含义:If sound policy is to be formulated, the issues will be decided on the basis of three criteria: Is the proposed matter feasible? (Can it be done?) Is it advisable? (Should it be done?) Is it efficient? (What is the cost-benefit ratio?) The policy will be sound if those questions are answered affirmatively, or if a satisfactory compromise based on the criteria is made.

从以上的解释不难看出,英语中的sound policy同汉语中的“稳健政策”是比较吻合的。因为它是以可行性、必要性和效益性这“三性”要求为前提的。


丁教授提出用 sound policy 来表示“稳健政策”,其实他的论述不能成立。丁教授以上引文,说 sound policy 有三性,可行性,必要性和效益性。

只要提一个问题就难倒丁教了:早些年的“积极的”政策,具备不具备“可行性、必要性和效益性”?丁教授不敢说它不具备这三性吧?那么,岂不是 proactive policy = 稳健政策?

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 6Rank: 6

Post time 2006-11-3 09:41:04 |Display all floors
其实,“积极的”政策和“稳健的”政策都是具有“可行性、必要性和效益性”的政策,都是 sound policies (好政策)。要区分 “积极的”政策(proactive policy)与 “稳健的”政策,就不能用 sound 来译“稳健的”。

这不是很明白的事吗?

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 6Rank: 6

Post time 2006-11-3 09:48:42 |Display all floors
所以俺要劝丁教授和陈教授,二位就别去“琢磨”它了,prudent 这个词不是很好吗?

Definition of PRUDENT: careful and sensible; marked by sound judgment; "a prudent manager"; "prudent rulers"; "prudent hesitation"; "more prudent to hide than to fight"
即便按你们引的definition,哪里有什么“消极保守”的贬义呢?

AHD 的 definition:

prudent:

Wise in handling practical matters; exercising good judgment or common sense.
精明的精于处理实际事务的;运用良好的判断力或常识的
Careful in regard to one's own interests; provident.
在自己的利益方面小心仔细的;节俭的
Careful about one's conduct; circumspect.
审慎地小心行事的;谨慎的

Use magic tools Report

You can't reply post until you log in Log in | register

BACK TO THE TOP
Contact us:Tel: (86)010-84883548, Email: blog@chinadaily.com.cn
Blog announcement:| We reserve the right, and you authorize us, to use content, including words, photos and videos, which you provide to our blog
platform, for non-profit purposes on China Daily media, comprising newspaper, website, iPad and other social media accounts.