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Post time 2006-7-19 12:18:35 |Display all floors
一、        就业(1)基本状况

中国(2)劳动年龄人口众多,国民(3)教育水平较低,就业矛盾(4)十分突出。(5)主要表现在:劳动力供求总量矛盾和就业结构性矛盾同时并存,(6)城镇就业压力加大和农村(7)富余劳动力向非农领域转移速度加快同时出现,(8)新成长劳动力就业和失业人员(9)再就业问题相互交织。


I. (1)Basic Employment Situation
In China, there is a (2)large working-age population, while the average (3)educational level of the people is relatively low, resulting in a very (4)prominent problem of unemployment. This is (5)primarily manifested in the co-existence of the contradiction of the total volume of workforce supply and demand and the contradiction of employment structure, in the simultaneous appearance of (6)increasing pressure on urban employment and acceleration of the shift of (7)surplus rural laborers to non-agricultural sectors, and in the intertwining of the employment problem for (8)new entrants to the workforce and that of the (9) reemployment for laid-off workers.

  人口与(1)劳动力
2003年,中国总人口达到12.92亿(不包括(2)香港特别行政区、澳门特别行政区和台湾省)。全国(3)16岁以上人口为99889万人,其中城镇42375万人,农村57514万人;(4)经济活动人口76075万人,(5)劳动力参与率为76.2%。16岁以上人口中,(6)初中以上文化程度占61.7%,(7)大专以上文化程度占6.6%;(8)技术工人中,(9)初级占61.5%,(10)中级占35%,(11)高级占3.5%。


Population and (1)workforce
In 2003, the total population of China reached 1.292 billion (excluding (2)Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan Province). The population (3)over the age of 16 was 998.89 million, of which the urban population was 423.75 million and the rural population 575.14 million; (4)the economically active population was 760.75 million and the (5)workforce participation rate was 76.2 percent. Among the population over the age of 16, (6)the population with junior middle school education level and above took up 61.7 percent, and that with (7)junior college education level and above, 6.6 percent. Among the population of (8)technical workers, those of the (9)elementary grade took up 61.5 percent, those of the (10)intermediate grade, 35 percent, and those of the (11)advanced grade, 3.5 percent.


  就业总量
2003年,中国(1)城乡从业人员达到74432万人(见图1),其中城镇25639万人,占34.4%(见图2),乡村48793万人,占65.6%。1990-2003年,共增加从业人员9683万人,(2)平均每年新增745万人。


Total employment
In 2003, the total (1)urban and rural employed population reached 744.32 million (see Chart 1), of which the urban employed population was 256.39 million, accounting for 34.4 percent (see Chart 2), and the rural employed population was 487.93 million, accounting for 65.6 percent. From 1990 to 2003, the employed population increased by 96.83 million, (2)an average increase of 7.45 million per annum.


[ Last edited by hiy2004 at 2006-7-19 12:19 PM ]
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Post time 2006-7-19 12:26:15 |Display all floors
(1)就业结构
  (2)三次产业就业结构,1990-2003年,(3)第三产业从业人员所占(4)比重稳步增长,由18.5%提高到29.3%,从业人员达到21809万人;(5)第二产业从业人员所占比重(6)稳定在21.6%,从业人员达到16077万人;(7)第一产业从业人员所占比重有所下降,由60.1%下降到49.1%,从业人员为36546万人(见图3)。

(1)Employment structure
(2)As far as the employment structure is concerned, from 1990 to 2003 (4)the proportion of those employed in (3)tertiary industry rose steadily from 18.5 percent to 29.3 percent, with the number of employees reaching 218.09 million; the proportion of those employed in (5)secondary industry (6)remained at around 21.6 percent, with the number of employees reaching 160.77 million; and the proportion of those employed in (7)primary industry dropped from 60.1 percent to 49.1 percent, with the employees numbering 365.46 million (see Chart 3).

(1)从城乡就业结构看,1990-2003年,乡村从业人员所占比例由73.7%下降到65.6%。从不同经济成分就业结构看, 1990-2003年,(2)国有单位从业人员减少3470万人,为6876万人;城镇个体私营经济组织的从业人员增加3596万人,为4267万人,占同期城镇新增就业人数的46.5%;各种外商投资和(3)多种形式经济,(4)非全日制、(5)临时性、(6)季节性、(7)钟点工、(8)弹性工作等各种就业形式迅速兴起,成为扩大就业的(8)重要渠道

(1)In terms of employment structure by urban and rural areas, from 1990 to 2003, the ratio of the employed in rural areas dropped from 73.7 percent to 65.6 percent. In terms of employment structure by different economic sectors, from 1990 to 2003, the number of employees in (2)state-owned entities decreased by 34.7 million, down to 68.76 million; the number of those employed by urban individual and private economic entities increased by 35.96 million, to reach 42.67 million, representing 46.5 percent of the newly employed in the urban areas in the same period.  New forms of employment mushroomed, such as jobs in foreign-invested firms and economic entities of (3)diverse forms,(4) part-time jobs, (5)temporary jobs, (6)seasonal jobs, (7)work on an hourly basis and (8)jobs with flexible working hours, and became (8)important avenues for the expansion of employment


[ Last edited by hiy2004 at 2006-7-19 12:44 PM ]
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Post time 2006-7-19 12:27:39 |Display all floors
(1)失业率

  近年来,在就业压力持续加大的(2)情况下,中国政府采取多种措施(3)控制城镇失业率的(4)急剧上升。2003年底,城镇(5)登记失业率为4.3%,城镇登记失业人数为800万人(见图4)。
2004年,中国政府确定就业再就业工作目标为新增就业900万人,下岗失业人员再就业500万人,其中困难人员再就业100万人,城镇登记失业率控制在4.7%左右。

(5)城乡居民收入

  随着经济的发展和就业机会的增多,居民收入不断增长。1990-2003年,城镇居民(6)人均可支配收入由1510元增长到8472元,(7)增长4.6倍,实际增长1.6倍;农村居民人均(8)纯收入由686元增长到2622元,增长2.8倍,实际增长77%(见图5)。


(1)Unemployment rate
In recent years, (2)as the employment pressure has been continuously increasing, the Chinese government has adopted many measures to (3)curb the (4)sharp rise of urban unemployment. By the end of 2003, the (5)registered unemployment rate in the urban areas was 4.3 percent, and the number of registered jobless urbanites was eight million (see Chart 4).
In 2004, the Chinese government has plans to find employment or reemployment for nine million people, and reemployment for five million laid-off persons, of whom the number of those who have difficulties finding a new job is one million. The registered unemployment rate in the urban areas is planned to be controlled at around 4.7 percent.
Income of urban and rural residents
As the economy develops and job opportunities increase, the income of urban and rural residents keeps rising. From 1990 to 2003, the (6)disposable income per capita of urban residents rose from 1,510 yuan to 8,472 yuan, (7)an increase of 460 percent or a rise of 160 percent in real terms; and the (8)net income per capita of rural residents increased from 686 yuan to 2,622 yuan, an increase of 280 percent, or a rise of 77 percent in real terms (see Chart 5).


http://www.china.org.cn/ch-book/20040426/2.htm
http://www.china.org.cn/e-white/20040426/1.htm

[ Last edited by hiy2004 at 2006-7-19 01:01 PM ]
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