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Post time 2006-7-18 21:16:15 |Display all floors
一、环境保护法制和体制
中国宪法[size=-1](1)
明确规定:“国家保护和改善(2)生活环境和生态环境,防治污染和其他(3)公害。”自1949年新中国成立以来,(4)全国人民代表大会及其常务委员会(5)制定了环境保护法律9部、自然资源保护法律15部。1996年以来,国家(6)制定或(7)修订了包括(8)水污染防治、(9)海洋环境保护、(10)大气污染防治、(11)环境噪声污染防治、(12)固体废物污染环境防治、环境影响评价、放射性污染防治等环境保护法律,以及水、清洁生产、(13)可再生能源、农业、草原和畜牧等与环境保护关系密切的法律;国务院制定或修订了《建设项目环境保护(14)管理条例》、《水污染防治法(15)实施细则》、《危险化学品安全管理条例》、《排污费征收使用管理条例》、《危险废物经营许可证管理办法》、《野生植物保护条例》、《(17)农业转基因生物安全管理条例》等50余项(16)行政法规;发布了《(18)关于落实科学发展观加强环境保护的决定》、《(19)关于加快发展循环经济的若干意见》、《(20)关于做好建设资源节约型社会近期工作的通知》等法规性文件。(21)国务院有关部门、(22)地方人民代表大会和(23)地方人民政府(24)依照职权,为实施国家环境保护法律和行政法规,制定和颁布了规章和地方法规660余件。
中国已建立(25)国家和地方环境保护标准体系。国家环境保护标准包括国家环境质量标准、国家(26)污染物排放(控制)标准、国家环境标准样品标准及其他国家环境保护标准;地方环境保护标准包括地方环境质量标准和地方污染物排放标准。截至2005年底,国家颁布了800余项国家环境保护标准,北京、上海、山东、河南等省(市)共制定了30余项环境保护地方标准。
中国不断加强环境执法检查和行政执法。近年来,国家连续对环境保护、大气污染防治、水污染防治、固体废物污染环境防治等法律实施情况进行检查,推动重点地区污染治理。中国刑法还对破坏环境资源罪(27)有专门规定。国家颁布《环境保护违法违纪行为处分(28)暂行规定》,建立起环境保护行政执法(29)责任制度,(30)并连续三年(32)开展(31)整治违法排污企业、保障公民健康环保专项行动,(33)依法查处7.5万多起环境违法案件,(34)取缔关闭违法排污企业1.6万家,对1万多个环境污染问题实(35)行挂牌督办。国家还开展矿山生态环境保护和海洋环境保护(36)专项执法检查,依法处理多起(37)违法行为
中国实行(38)各级政府对当地环境质量负责,环境保护行政主管部门统一监督管理,(39)各有关部门(40)依照法律规定实施监督管理的环境管理体制。1998年中国政府将原国家环境保护局升格为(41)国家环境保护总局((42)正部级),作为国务院主管环境保护工作的(43)直属机构,负责对中国环境保护工作实施统一监管。国家建立了全国环境保护部际联席会议制度,并建立了区域环境督查派出机构,以加强部门和地区间的协调与合作。各省(自治区、直辖市)、市、县级政府设置了环境保护议事协调机构。目前,全国有各级环保行政主管部门3226个,(44)从事环境行政管理、监测、科学研究、宣传教育等工作的总人数达16.7万人;有各级环境监察执法机构3854个,总人数达5万多人。各级政府综合部门和资源管理部门以及多数大中型企业也设有环保机构,负责本部门和企业的环境保护工作,目前从业人员达30多万。

原文中:http://www.china.com.cn/chinese/zhuanti/book/1229792.htm
原文英:http://www.china.org.cn/english/MATERIAL/170404.htm

[ Last edited by hiy2004 at 2006-7-19 01:05 PM ]
理解=>表达=》润色
understanding+expressing+polishing

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Post time 2006-7-18 21:25:40 |Display all floors
I. Environmental Protection Legislation and System
The Constitution of the People's Republic of China (PRC) (1)stipulates, "The State protects and improves (2)the environment in which people live and the ecological environment. It prevents and controls pollution and other (3)public hazards." Since the PRC was founded in 1949, (4)the National People's Congress (NPC) and its Standing Committee have (5)formulated nine laws on environmental protection and 15 laws on the protection of natural resources. Since 1996, the State has (6) formulated or (7) revised laws on environmental protection, such as those on (8) prevention and control of water pollution, (9)marine environment protection, (10)prevention and control of air pollution, (11)prevention and control of noise pollution, (12)prevention and control of solid waste pollution, evaluation of environmental impact, and prevention and control of radioactive pollution, as well as laws closely related to environmental protection, such as those on water, clean production, (13)renewable energy, agriculture, grassland and animal husbandry. The State Council has formulated or revised over 50 (16) administrative regulations, such as the(14) Regulations on Environmental Protection Management of Construction Projects, (15)Rules for the Implementation of the Law on the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution, Regulations on the Safety Management of Dangerous Chemicals, Regulations on the Management of Collection and Use of Waste Discharge Fees, Measures on the Management of Dangerous Waste Operation Licenses, Regulations on the Protection of Wild Plants, and Regulations on the Safety Management of Agricultural (17)Genetically-modified Organisms. It has promulgated documents with similar power to laws and regulations, such as (18)the Decision on Implementing the Idea of Taking the Scientific Outlook on Development and Strengthening Environmental Protection, (19)Opinions for Quickening the Development of a Cyclical Economy, and (20) Circular on the Recent Work of Effectively Building a Resource-efficient Society. (21)Relevant departments of the State Council,(22) local people's congresses and (23)local people's governments have, (24)within the limit of their powers, formulated and promulgated over 660 central and local rules and regulations in order to implement the national laws and administrative regulations on environmental protection.
   
China has established a system of environmental protection standards (25)at both the national and local levels. National-level environmental protection standards include environmental quality standards, (26)pollutant discharge (control) standards, and standards for environmental samples. Local environmental protection standards include environmental quality and pollutant discharge standards. By the end of 2005, the State had promulgated over 800 national environmental protection standards. The municipalities of Beijing and Shanghai, and the provinces of Shandong and Henan had promulgated over 30 local environmental protection standards.
   
China has constantly strengthened checks on the enforcement of environmental legislation, and improved administrative law enforcement. In recent years, the State has conducted checks on the enforcement of laws on environmental protection, and the prevention and control of air pollution, water pollution and solid waste pollution, so as to push forward pollution control in key areas. China's criminal law has (27) special provisions on destruction of environmental resources. The State has promulgated the (28)Interim Regulations on the Punishment of Violations of Environmental Protection Laws or Disciplines, and put in place a (29)responsibility system of administrative law enforcement in the area of environmental protection. For three years (30)in a row, the State has (32)launched special environmental protection campaigns to (31)rectify enterprises that have discharged pollutants in violation of the law and to protect people's health. It has (33)dealt with over 75,000 environmental law violation cases, and had 16,000 enterprises (34)closed down for having discharged pollutants in violation of the law. More than 10,000(35) warnings have been issued to environment polluters, obliging them to remedy the problems under government supervision. The State has also(36) conducted special checks on the enforcement of laws regarding mining areas eco-environmental protection and maritime environmental protection, and has dealt with a number of (37) law violations.
   
China has implemented an environmental management system, whereby (38)governments at all levels are responsible for the environmental quality of the areas within their jurisdiction, (39)the competent administrative departments in charge of environmental protection have the power of overall supervision and management, while other relevant departments exercise such supervision and management functions (40)according to the provisions of the law. In 1998 the Chinese government changed the name of the State Environmental Protection Bureau to the (41)State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), and (42)elevated it to the ministerial level. Thus, SEPA became (43)an organization directly under the State Council to be responsible for exercising overall supervision and management of China's environmental protection work. The State has set up a national inter-ministry joint conference system for environmental protection and established representative offices for regional environmental supervision, in an effort to strengthen coordination and cooperation between departments and regions. The governments of all the provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government), cities and counties have set up organs responsible for addressing and coordinating environmental protection issues. There are now 3,226 environmental protection administration departments at different levels all over China, with 167,000 people (44) engaging in environmental administration, monitoring, scientific research, publicity and education. There are 3,854 environmental supervision and environmental law enforcement organs with more than 50,000 staff members. Environmental protection organs are also found in some government departments for comprehensive affairs or resource administration departments, as well as in most large and medium-sized enterprises, responsible for their own environmental protection work. More than 300,000 people are employed by these organs.


[ Last edited by hiy2004 at 2006-7-18 09:28 PM ]
理解=>表达=》润色
understanding+expressing+polishing

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Post time 2006-7-19 01:18:20 |Display all floors
Scared to death already :)

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