Author: clearwater

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Post time 2005-7-15 19:28:39 |Display all floors

FYI

谢谢你的一番话。
希望共同进步!

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Post time 2005-7-15 19:31:27 |Display all floors

是该好好休息了!看看大好河山,泡泡温泉,挎小蜜就算了呵呵!

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Post time 2005-7-15 19:31:30 |Display all floors

我也建议你好好休息几天!一定会  豁然开朗,面目一新!

我这个人比较悲观,但自来到这个论坛.

我将与大家同乐!

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Post time 2005-7-15 22:35:11 |Display all floors

then

为什么不让大家点评一下您的译本呢?

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Post time 2005-7-16 04:12:27 |Display all floors

FYI

因现在在翻的员工手册属于保密资料,所以我无法发布于网上。
只好另找一篇近日翻译的拙译,请有兴趣的朋友指正。
****************
A hawk to ruffle the World Bank's feathers
George Bush has nominated Paul Wolfowitz, one of the main architects of the Iraq war, to run the World Bank. Though this is normally America’s prerogative, Europeans and others may object to the candidacy of so hawkish a figure
FOREIGNERS can be forgiven for not knowing what to make of George Bush in his second term. On one hand, he and his secretary of state, Condoleezza Rice, have made mollifying trips to Europe, trying to reassure America’s oldest allies that despite the Iraq war, it wants to remain friends. On the other hand, contrition is not one of Mr Bush’s strongest characteristics. Last week he nominated John Bolton, one of the State Department’s leading hawks and an outspoken critic of the United Nations, to be America’s ambassador to the UN. With Europeans still scratching their heads about that choice, Mr Bush has surprised them again by nominating Paul Wolfowitz, one of the chief architects of the Iraq war, to head the World Bank.
By tradition, the Europeans name the head of the International Monetary Fund, and the Americans pick the boss of the World Bank. This arrangement worked well for some time, but five years ago America blocked the Europeans’ choice to run the IMF, Caio Koch-Weser, and the job eventually went to Horst Köhler (who has since become Germany’s president).
The World Bank posts George Bush's nomination of Paul Wolfowitz for the presidency of the bank. World Bank President.org covers the selection process.
Will the Europeans now block the controversial Mr Wolfowitz? Reuters news agency reported on Wednesday March 16th, the day the nomination was announced, that Mr Wolfowitz’s name had already been unofficially floated among members of the Bank’s board, and rejected. But Mr Bush has gone ahead with the nomination, and has begun consulting European leaders. At a press conference on Wednesday, the president described his nominee as “a compassionate, decent man” and a “skilled diplomat”. Mr Wolfowitz, who is currently America’s deputy secretary of defence, has had several stints in government, including in the administration of George Bush senior. In the late 1980s he was America's ambassador to Indonesia, where he came to love the culture of the world’s most populous Muslim country.
But Mr Wolfowitz is also a favoured bogeyman of critics of the Iraq war. He is the best known of the “neoconservatives”, a group of Washington policymakers who believe that American power must be used to spread democracy and American values. He was a passionate advocate of moving against Iraq soon after the terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001, believing not only that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction, but that the lack of democracy in the Middle East was a key reason why the region had become a breeding ground for terrorism.
If Mr Wolfowitz was controversial in the run-up to the war, he has become even more so since. In late 2003, he signed a memorandum banning Pentagon contracts for Iraq’s reconstruction being given to countries that had opposed the war (among which were France, Russia and Germany). Moreover, his pre-war estimates for how much the conflict would cost and how many troops it would require turned out to be wildly optimistic—as was his prediction that Iraqis would welcome coalition forces as liberators.
A revolution in development?
At the World Bank, Mr Wolfowitz will—if the Europeans accept him—be dealing not with tank divisions and theories of deterrence but rather with using America’s “soft power” to tackle poverty. Two well-known development economists, Jeffrey Sachs and Joseph Stiglitz, were quick to bemoan his nomination. But his lack of experience in the development community does not necessarily make him a bad candidate. Having served under Donald Rumsfeld during the controversial “Revolution in Military Affairs”, Mr Wolfowitz might, some argue, be well placed to bring radical change to an organisation sorely in need of it.
The World Bank has spent much of the past decade responding to charges that its funding did little to achieve its primary mission: helping developing countries to grow their way out of poverty. The conventional wisdom is that aid is of little benefit unless the recipient country is a model of political and economic rectitude. These are hard qualities to find in a developing nation, and many complained that the Bank wasn’t looking very hard, preferring the showy headlines of massive infrastructure projects to the tedious slog of gradual poverty reduction.
James Wolfensohn, the Bank’s outgoing president, has worked hard to ensure better allocation of its funds during his decade at the helm. More money now goes to countries with good policies than bad. And he has placed more emphasis on fighting poverty, less on dams and superhighways to nowhere. But the Bank still lends lots of money to middle-income countries that arguably don’t need it, and to poor ones that can’t use it because their governments will steal or squander any funds that come their way.
Mr Wolfensohn has fought the Bush administration’s attempts to fundamentally alter the Bank’s operations. Paul O’Neill, the former treasury secretary, met fierce resistance when he suggested that the Bank should get out of the business of making loans since many of the recipient countries had access to the capital markets. But there are worries that Mr Wolfensohn has been less tough when faced with demands by non-governmental organisations. Some of the Bank's loans have come with conditions that benefit small interest groups, rather than the population at large. This has improved the Bank’s public relations, but arguably at the expense of its mission. To build a really effective institution, it may take a man who is not afraid to be widely disliked.
Mr Wolfowitz has certainly demonstrated that he can live with being controversial, and that he can articulate and put into practice a bold vision. But some worry that his desire to push democracy sits uncomfortably with the Bank's mission. His belief in the power of political freedom will colour his views of economic development as well. But is this the right agenda for the Bank, whose job is to spread prosperity? And the relationship between democratic reform and poverty alleviation is complicated. The most successful poverty reduction in the past generation, after all, is in communist China.
A related worry is that Mr Wolfowitz will not be able to separate himself from the White House. It is perhaps instructive to look at the history of another man who came out of America’s defence department to head the World Bank: Robert McNamara, who as defence secretary was an architect of the Vietnam war. Steven Radelet of the Centre for Global Development, speaking to CNN, points out that Mr McNamara was accused of picking aid recipients based on their support for America’s foreign policy, rather than their suitability for assistance. Will Mr Wolfowitz be able to resist using his office to further his political aims?

鹰派人物会执掌世界银行吗?
乔治•布什已提名伊拉克战争的主要设计者之一:保罗•沃尔福威茨执掌世界银行。虽然提名世行行长通常是美国的特权,但欧洲及其他国家也许会反对这样一位鹰派人物作为候选人。
               
如果外国人不知道在其第二个任期内成就了乔治•布什,那情有可原。一方面,布什和他的国务卿康多莉扎•赖斯已踏上了安抚欧洲的旅程,试图让美国由来已久的盟友放心:尽管爆发了伊拉克战争,美国仍想与他们为友。另一方面,悔罪可不是布什先生最明显的个性之一。上周,他提名约翰•波尔顿担任美国驻联合国大使。波尔顿是美国国务院的主要鹰派人物之一,经常直言不讳地抨击联合国。由于欧洲各国仍在为世行行长人选一事而犯难,布什先生居然提名伊拉克战争的主要设计者之一:保罗•沃尔福威茨执掌世界银行,这再度让他们大跌眼镜。
按照传统,欧洲国家负责提名国际货币基金会主席,美国负责遴选世界银行行长。一段时间来,这种人选安排相安无事。可是五年前,美国反对欧洲选择掌管国际货币基金会的人选:科赫韦泽,而这个职位最终花落霍斯特•克勒(后来他担任德国总统)。
世界银行发布了乔治•布什提名保罗•沃尔福威茨担任银行行长的消息。世界银行行长网站报道了遴选过程。
如今欧洲会不会反对有争议性的沃尔福威茨先生呢?在3月16日周三即宣布提名的同一天,路透社通讯社报告,沃尔福威茨先生的大名已经在世界银行董事会的成员当中私下传开来,但遭到了众人反对。不过布什先生继续进行他的提名计划,并已开始与欧洲领导人进行洽商。在周三的记者招待会上,布什总统称他提名的这位候选人是位“充满热情的正派人士”以及“经验丰富的外交家”。沃尔福威茨先生目前是美国国防部副部长,在美国政府担任过几项职务,其中包括老乔治•布什政府。20世纪80年代末,他担任美国驻印度尼西亚大使。后来他逐渐喜爱上了世界上人口最多的这个穆斯林国家的文化。
不过在批评伊拉克战争的人士看来,沃尔福威茨先生也是被他们频频抨击的靶子。他在“新保守派”当中是最出名的。新保守派是指华盛顿的一群决策者,他们认为,必须动用美国的力量来传播民主精神和美国的价值观。2001年9月11日恐怖分子发动袭击后不久,他就情绪激昂地拥护对伊拉克动武。他不仅相信,萨达姆•候赛因拥有大规模杀伤性武器,还认为,中东之所以成为恐怖主义的发源地,该地区缺乏民主主义是一个关键因素。
如果说沃尔福威茨先生在战争爆发前夕颇有争议性,那么之后他的争议性就更大了。2003年底,他签署了一份谅解备忘录,禁止把五角大楼的伊拉克重建项目合同包给曾经反对伊拉克战争的国家,其中就有法国、俄罗斯和德国。另外,结果证明,战前他对军事冲突带来的损失和需要多少军力的估计是盲目乐观――他预计,伊拉克人会像欢迎解放者那样欢迎盟军,同样过于乐观。
在世界银行,沃尔福威茨先生――如果欧洲接受他的话――将来要面对的不是坦克师和威慑论,而是利用美国的“软力量”来着手解决贫穷问题。两位大名鼎鼎的发展经济学家:杰弗里•萨克斯和约瑟夫•斯蒂格利兹对他的任命马上表示悲叹。不过他在经济发展领域缺乏经验,这未必会让他成为不理想的候选人。在颇有争议的“军事革命”时期,沃尔福威茨先生曾在美国国防部长唐纳德•拉姆斯菲尔德手下任过职。有些人认为,说到给亟需变革的组织施行重大变革,他也许是个合适人选。
在过去十年的大部分时候,世界银行在疲于应对外界的这种指责:世行提供的资金在实现其首要使命:帮助发展中国家摆脱贫穷方面作用不大。一般人认为,除非受援国在政治和经济局势方面堪称典范,否则援助金就没有多大益处,不过发展中国家很少具备这样的条件。还有许多人抱怨,世界银行没在认真挑选受援对象;与时间长、难度大的扶贫项目相比,它更偏爱媒体大肆报道的大规模基础设施项目。
世界银行即将离职的行长詹姆斯•沃尔芬森不遗余力地确保:在自己任职的十年间,世行资金得到比较合理的分配。如今,政策良好的国家获得的援助金多于政策不好的国家。他还更加重视消除贫困的项目,而不是水坝和不知通向何处的超级高速公路。不过世界银行仍把大笔的款项贷给了大概并不需要的中等收入国家,以及因为本国政府会盗取或者挥霍外界提供的援助金而无法享用的贫困国家。
沃尔芬森先生竭力反对布什政府企图从根本上改变世界银行运作体系的主张。美国前财政部长保罗•奥尼尔曾提议,世界银行应当停止贷款业务,因为许多受援国可以进入资本市场,结果遇到了强烈反对。但也有人担忧:沃尔芬森先生面对非政府机构提出的要求时,表现得不够强硬。世界银行的贷款有些附带的条件有益于小撮的利益集团,而不是广大群众。这提高了世界银行的公关声誉,却恐怕牺牲了它的使命。为了构建一家真正高效的机构,恐怕就需要一位对自己受到公众讨厌并不害怕的人物。
沃尔福威茨先生显然证明了他能够忍受争议人物的生活;他也能够阐明大胆的计划,并加以落实。但一些人担心,他渴望推进民主主义的立场与世界银行的使命格格不入。他信奉政治自由具有的力量,这也会影响他对经济发展的观点。不过这就是旨在促进繁荣的世界银行的正确日程表吗?民主改革和消除贫困之间的关系错综复杂。毕竟,过去一代最成功的扶贫项目出现在共产主义的中国。
让人担心的一个相关问题就是,沃尔福威茨先生无法把自己与白宫分离开来。回顾一下从美国国防部出来、掌管世界银行的另一位人士:罗伯特•麦克纳马拉的经历,也许会让人有所启示。麦克纳马拉在担任美国国防部长期间是越南战争的设计者。全球发展中心的斯蒂文•拉德勒特在接受有线新闻电视网(CNN)采访时指出,麦克纳马拉先生被指责根据对美国对外政策的支持力度来选择受援对象,而不是看他们是否适合援助。沃尔福威茨先生能够抵挡得住利用职务、推进其政治目的这一诱惑吗?

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Post time 2005-7-16 07:28:06 |Display all floors

既然您礼贤下士,那我就先跳出来了啊?

A hawk to ruffle the World Bank's feathers
鹰派人物会执掌世界银行吗?--〉鹰派人物将重整世界银行
标题不是问句。
a hawk to ruffle: a hawk is going to ruffle 梳理翻动羽毛,比喻重新安排政策。

FOREIGNERS can be forgiven for not knowing what to make of George Bush in his second term.
如果外国人不知道在其第二个任期内成就了乔治•布什,那情有可原。
what to make of somebody 在其第二个任期内成就了??? something is missing here, i guess.

despite the Iraq war, it wants to remain friends. On the other hand, contrition is not one of Mr Bush’s strongest characteristics.
尽管爆发了伊拉克战争,美国仍想与他们为友。--〉尽管在伊拉克战争方面有分歧,美国仍然是他们的好朋友。
另一方面,悔罪可不是布什先生最明显的个性之一。--〉当然,布什先生绝不会对他们说后悔在伊拉克打仗的话。
(感觉原译在语气上不大对,虽然英文有些酸溜溜的,但是译文过于负面,调侃过火了。 另外第二句过于洋腔,意思上也有些模糊,试着改了一下,不一定好。)

But Mr Wolfowitz is also a favoured bogeyman of critics of the Iraq war.
不过在批评伊拉克战争的人士看来,沃尔福威茨先生也是被他们频频抨击的靶子。--〉。。。,沃尔福威茨先生是一个十分理想的抨击靶子。(请注意中文语法)

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Post time 2005-7-16 07:41:19 |Display all floors

谢谢nyleda的指点。

部分接受,部分保留己见。
FOREIGNERS can be forgiven for not knowing what to make of George Bush in his second term.
如果外国人不知道在其第二个任期内成就了乔治•布什,那情有可原。
->
如果外国人不知道到底是什么在其第二个任期内成就了乔治•布什,那也是情有可原的。

despite the Iraq war, it wants to remain friends. On the other hand, contrition is not one of Mr Bush’s strongest characteristics.
尽管爆发了伊拉克战争,美国仍想与他们为友。--〉尽管在伊拉克战争方面有分歧,美国仍然是他们的好朋友。(保留原译)
*请注意原句中的wants。
But Mr Wolfowitz is also a favoured bogeyman of critics of the Iraq war.
不过在批评伊拉克战争的人士看来,沃尔福威茨先生也是被他们频频抨击的靶子。--〉。。。,沃尔福威茨先生是一个十分理想的抨击靶子。(请注意中文语法)
(保留原译)

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