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A lot depends on the kind of storm.
For example, information on Hail Storms can be found:|
And in part reads: "Given the possibility that storms of different types and different intensities might respond differently to seeding, it is important to be able to classify storms into groups where the response is expected to be more uniform. Objectively classifying storms based on their structural characteristics is very difficult and somewhat subjective. More recently, Abshaev in Russia has developed a scheme that uses only the maximum reflectivity and the height of the 45-dBZ echo, and has shown very intriguing results."
Some information on storms called nor'easters or North East Storm common off the East Coast of America and Canada can be found:
And reads in part:
"They analyzed the wave height and duration of 1,347 northeast storms that occurred along the North Carolina coast between 1942 and 1984 to produce a "relative storm power" for each northeaster. This
measurement allowed the scientists to classify the storms into five groups ranging from "Weak," Class 1 storms that caused little erosion and no property damage, to "Extreme," Class 5 storms that featured extreme beach erosion, dune destruction over wide areas, and extensive property damage."
"Mr. Dolan believes the new storm classification procedure will have practical value. "It is simple to compute the relative power of a given storm by keeping track of the number of hours that waves remain
above five feet," he said.
For info on Tornadoes:
And in part:
"Tornado strength is rated on the Fujita Scale, a system developed by T. Theodore Fujita of the University of Chicago in 1971. The "F-scale" ranges from F0 to F5, based on a storm's potential to cause damage. F0 is used to classify storms with wind speeds up to 72mph that cause light damage; F5 tornadoes cause extreme damage and carry wind speeds higher than 261mph."
For Hurricanes (and similar for Cyclones and Typhoons):
And in part:
"Hurricanes are commonly classified by the strength of their winds into five categories on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Intensity Scale. The weakest hurricanes, with wind speeds of 119-153 kmph (74-95 mph), are referred to as Category I storms and cause minimal damage primarily to plants and trees. In 1992, Hurricane Andrew was a Category IV storm with sustained wind speeds of 225 kmph (140 mph). Category V storms, such as Hurricane Camille in 1969, are the strongest and responsible for catastrophic damage. Hurricane Camille, with sustained winds of more than 320 kmph (200 mph)."