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汉颜色词语及其内涵意义的对比 [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2005-3-10 10:36:06 |Display all floors
  英汉语中某些颜色的词语,在平时的运用中其客观色彩意义已经淡化,而常用来表示不同的喻义。我们应当注意这类英汉词语的异同之外,还应注意这类颜色词不能直译,所以当我们使用这些词汇时,应特别留意其涵义及翻译,才能达到正确动用之目的。



一、white

1) 英语中的“white”其涵义可表示纯洁、美好、善意、合法、公平、幸福、轻轻的、政治上反动等,如:

a white lie 无恶意的谎言

white coffee 加牛奶的咖啡

white list 白名单(指守法人士、合法机构等)

white room 最清洁的房屋

white hope 为某团体(或) 城镇带来荣誉的人

white wedding 吉祥的婚礼

white man 正直高尚的人

white light 公正无私的裁判

white sheet 忏悔者的白袍

white magic 有美好动机的魔术

days marked with a white stone 幸福的日子

the white bird 人的知觉与灵魂

2) 汉语中的“白色”其涵义表示清楚、明白、陈述、纯净、无代价的、无效的、政治上反动的等。如:

真相大白the fact made clear

白吃eat sth without pay

表白explain sth for oneself

白给give sb sth for nothing

白丁very common people

白眼the tired look

不分皂白not tell right or wrong

白痴the foolish person

白圭之玷the good man’s shortcoming



二、green



1) 英语中的green 一词可表示新的、年轻的、嫉妒的、佳境的等。如:

a green hand 新手

green house 暖房

green room 演员休息室

as green as grass 无生活经验的

green eyed monster 嫉妒

green fingers 成功的种植者;种植的高超技艺

green thumb 园芝技能

green light 绿灯 准许 许可

green line (军) 轰炸机、敌我分界线

green stuff 蔬菜 草木

in the green 青春期

a green old age 老当益壮

to get the green light 得到允许做某事

to look through green glasses 对..感到嫉妒

jack in the Greens 花屋中的人(西俗五月一日用冬青和花扎成小屋,人居其中,上街游行)

in the green tree (或wood) 处于佳境

green power (美) 金钱的力量

green sand(铸造用的) 新取砂

go to the green wood 落草(去当绿林好汉)



2) 汉语中的“青色”还可表示年轻的、新的、未成熟的、健壮的、永恒的等。如:

青史留名 leave a glorious name in the history

青女 the god having charge of fog in the legend

青史 the history book

青衿 the scholars in the ancient time

青睐 favour

炉火纯青the perfect skills of doing something

青出于蓝而胜于蓝the new coming from the old is better than the old



三、black



1) 英语中“black”可表示严重的,不受欢迎的,不吉利的、罪恶的、不合适的、不合法的、愤怒

的等。

a black letter day 不吉祥的日子,倒霉的一天

black and blue 青一块、紫一块

black market 非法交易市场

black list 黑名单

Black Mass 死人的弥撒

Black Maria 囚车、巡警车

black look 恶狠狠的神色

black mood 情绪低落

black spot 交通事故多发地段,事故、犯罪焦点

black sheep 败家子、害群之马

in somebody’s black books 失去某人的宠爱

black heart 指奸恶 阴险的人

black house 指军营中的牢房

black despair 大失望

black man 恶魔

black ox 不幸

black coffee 不加牛奶或糖的咖啡、诈骗犯



2) 汉语中的“黑色”也多表示贬意如“阴暗的、非法的、秘密的、坏的、狠毒的等。如:

黑心人 the very cruel people

黑市 unlawful market

黑幕 the evil inside of something

黑手 the reactionary power having some evil activities secretly

黑社会组织 the unlawful social organization doing some illegal activities as their job

黑货 the unlawful carrying or selling goods

黑帮 the reactionary organizations gathered secretly

黑色幽默 the humour expressing nihilism and pessimism



四、red

1) 英语色彩词“red”还可表示喜庆、热烈、幸运、流血的、赤字、亏损、负债等。如:

red alert (空袭) 紧急警报

red cross 红十字会

red light 危险信号

a red letter day 纪念日,大喜的日子

red meat 牛肉 羊肉

red rag 激怒的事物

on red alert 准备遭受危险 应急状态

red ball 快车

red tape 繁琐拖拉的公事程序,官僚作风

red herring 熏青鱼

see the red light 觉察危险逼近



3) 汉语的红色还可表示:革命、成功、受到宠信、喜庆等。如

开门红 get success at the very beginning

红火 very busy and flurishing

红人 a favourite with sb in power

红尘 human society the

红颜 beautiful women

红事 wedding

红脸 get angry or be shy

红眼 the green eye bonus

红运 good luck honour roll

红娘 the person helping the other’s marriage



五、yellow



1) 英语中“yellow”除表示黄颜色外还可表示胆怯的、卑鄙的、靠不住的、妒忌的、(报刊等) 采用耸人听闻手法的、作低级渲染的等。如:

yellow dog 野狗 杂种狗 卑鄙的人

yellow boy 金币 黑白杂种

yellow back 法国的一种廉价小说

have a yellow streak 懦怯、胆小、卑鄙的行为

the yellow press 黄色报刊,另人激动的报刊

yellow journalism(美) 黄色新闻编辑方式

yellow alert (空袭) 预备警报

yellow belly 可鄙的胆小鬼

yellow looks 可怕的脸色,诧异的眼神



2) 在汉语中“黄色”还可以表示下流、堕落,同时黄色与其它词语在一起构成了许多新的词汇,

使用广泛。如:

黄色书刊 obscene books blue films

扫黄 to blow or get rid of the obscene things

黄卷 the ancient books almanac

黄屋 the ancient emperor’s carriage

黄泉 the place where the dead were buried

黄教 one kind of lamaism

黄梁梦 a fond dream

黄发垂髯 the old people and children

黄道吉日 the lucky day to do something important



六、blue

1) 英语中的“blue”除表蓝色外,还可表示禁律严的、下流的、猥亵的、沮丧的、忧郁的、(脸色)发灰的、发紫的等。如:

the blues 忧郁、烦闷

out of blue 突然地

be blue in the face(由于愤怒或过分费力) 脸色突变

once in a blue moon 千载难逢

sing the blues 垂头丧气

till all in blue 到来了 直到大醉

blue alert (预备警报后的) 空袭警报,台风警报

blue chip 热门股票,第一流的, (同行中) 最赚钱的

blue coat 穿蓝制服的人 警察

blue blood 贵族出身

blue eyed 心爱的,易受骗的

blue gad (美俚) 低级下流的笑话

blue murder 恐怖的喊声

blue print 蓝图、行动计划

blue beard 鬼怪、妖怪

a light blue 伊顿公学的男生

to have a fit of the blues 沮丧的、低沉的

to blush like a blue dog 一点也不脸红

look or feel blue 惧丧的

Blue Hen’s Chickens (美国) 特拉华州的居民



2) 汉语中的“蓝”字,除表颜色外,还常与其它词在一起组成词组,表示与色彩不同的喻义。

蓝青官话 the standard Chinese spoken by the

people with accent

蓝本 script on which the works are based; model

蓝图 (blue print) building plan

蓝田生玉 the noble people usually come from the good family

青出于蓝而胜于蓝the new coming from the old is better than the old



七、brown

1) 在英语中“brown”除表褐色外,还可与其它词词语搭配组成新词汇表示不同的涵义,使用

也较广泛。如:

to be done brown 被欺骗,被烤

Brown Baggers 学习用功的学生

Brown Bess 明火枪(旧时英国军队中用的旧式步枪)

Brown bill 戟(十五、十六世纪一种枪两用的武器)

(be in) brown study 空想 梦想 沉思 幻想

brown sugar 红糖

brown bread 黑面包

brown rice 糙米

brown polish (美) 黑白混血儿

brown stoners 贵族气派的人

brown off (美俚) 出大错

brown out a. 灯光暗淡(指剧院院灯) b. (为防空袭或节约用电把灯弄暗)

do up brown (美俚) 把..彻底搞好

brown stone dist rict 富人住宅区

do sth brown 使某人上当



2) 在汉语中“褐”可表示粗布或粗布衣服,但它却很少与其它词语搭配构成新词。



当我们使用这类词时应很好地领会其涵义。斟酌其用法,切莫望之生意。

综上所述,我们不难看出颜色词使用广泛,除了其色彩意义外,还有许多抽象的象征意义,就其象征意义而言,英汉颜色词有不少相同之处,但不同之处更多,同时可以看出,这类词语所表达的文化内涵皆与本国的社会文化思想息息相关。因此,探究这类词语对于丰富语言知识、正确运用各类词汇大有益处。

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Post time 2005-3-10 11:35:56 |Display all floors

well done, robert!

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Post time 2005-4-7 10:13:30 |Display all floors

顶!

顶!

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Post time 2005-4-7 16:28:23 |Display all floors

i think白丁 is illiterated person.

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Post time 2005-4-7 17:06:51 |Display all floors

白丁=very common people extended to and actually equivalent to illiterate...

in ancient china, only a very small portion of the entire population received education to become literate. all the remaining were illiterate and classified as common. the word is often used together with 布衣 as 布衣白丁.

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Post time 2005-4-7 17:10:27 |Display all floors

thank you, i got it.

i have some more doubts.
青史 the history book
I think青史is abstract,simply means history, as you did in “青史留名 leave a glorious name in the history”
green eyed monster 嫉妒
this is a noun, while嫉妒 could also be a noun, however, where to put monster in chinese.
You cant say 你的嫉妒让我难受 your green eyed monster made me feel uneasy.
黑色幽默 the humour expressing nihilism and pessimism
you are explaining it rather than translating it.
Correct me if I am wrong. I remember seeing “ black humor” somewhere.
红娘 the person helping the other’s marriage
I think a matchmaker is simpler.
And does yellow mean obscenity in english too? Pardon me, I havent touched the Language and Culture for ages.
黄泉 the place where the dead were buried
I don’t think it is where the dead buried. Rather, it could be “ the underground world” 黄泉路上有个伴
blue murder 恐怖的喊声    murder=喊声
go to the green wood 落草(去当绿林好汉)  this translation is what I appreciate most. I would never come up with落草.

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Post time 2005-4-7 19:48:15 |Display all floors

yellow is associated with openness and freedom in english. i am afraid.

Onthego has done a great  job!
Chickeerun has given us a good comment as well!
i do appreciate your posts!

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