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Dehumanization of black children in US   [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2014-4-7 07:02:29 |Display all floors
Studies confirm the dehumanization of black children and the ‘preschool-to-prison pipeline’

Although African-Americans constitute only 13 percent of all Americans, nearly half of all prison inmates in the US are black. This startling statistic has led the United Nations Human Rights Committee to publicly criticize the US for its treatment of African-Americans. A number of recent studies and reports paint a damning picture of how American society dehumanizes blacks starting from early childhood.


Racial justice activists and prison abolition groups have long argued that the “school-to-prison” pipeline funnels young black kids into the criminal justice system, with higher rates of school suspension and arrest compared with nonblack kids for the same infractions. More than 20 years ago, Smith College professor Ann Arnett Ferguson wrote a groundbreaking book based on her three-year study of how black boys in particular are perceived differently starting in school. In “Bad Boys: Public Schools in the Making of Black Masculinity,” Ferguson laid out the ways in which educators and administrators funneled black male students into the juvenile justice system based on perceived differences between them and other students.

Today this trend continues with record numbers of suspensions as a result of “zero-tolerance” school policies and the increasing presence of campus police officers who arrest students for insubordination, fights and other types of behavior that might be considered normal “acting out” in school-aged children. In fact, black youth are far more likely to be suspended from school than any other race. They also face disproportionate expulsion and arrest rates, and once children enter the juvenile justice system they are far more likely to be incarcerated as adults.

Even the Justice Department under President Obama has understood what a serious problem this is, issuing a set of new guidelines earlier this year to curb discriminatory suspension in schools.

But it turns out that negative disciplinary actions affect African-American children starting as early as age 3. The US Department of Education just released a comprehensive study of public schools, revealing in a report that black children face discrimination even in preschool. (That preschool-aged children are suspended at all is hugely disturbing.) Data from the 2011-2012 year show that although black children make up only 18 percent of preschoolers, 42 percent of them were suspended at least once and 48 percent were suspended multiple times.

Consistent with this educational data and taking into account broader demographic, family and economic data for children of various races, broken down by state, is a newer study released this week by the Annie E. Casey Foundation that found African-American children are on the lowest end of nearly every measured index including proficiency in math and reading, high school graduation, poverty and parental education. The report, titled Race for Results, plainly says, “The index scores for African-American children should be considered a national crisis.”

Two other studies published recently offer specific evidence of how black children are so disadvantaged at an early age. One research project, published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, examined how college students and police officers estimated the ages of children who they were told had committed crimes. Both groups studied by UCLA professor Phillip Goff and collaborators were more likely to overestimate the ages of black children compared with nonblack ones, implying that black children were seen as “significantly less innocent” than others. The authors wrote:

    We expected ... that individuals would perceive Black boys as being more responsible for their actions and as being more appropriate targets for police violence. We find support for these hypotheses ... and converging evidence that Black boys are seen as older and less innocent and that they prompt a less essential conception of childhood than do their White same-age peers.

Another study by researchers at UC Riverside found that teachers tended to be more likely to evaluate black children negatively than nonblack ones who were engaged in pretend play. Psychology professor Tuppett M. Yates, who led the study, observed 171 preschool-aged children interacting with stuffed toys and other props and evaluated them for how imaginative and creative they were. In an interview on Uprising, Yates told me that all the children, regardless of race, were “similarly imaginative and similarly expressive,” but when their teachers evaluated those same children at a later time, there was a discriminatory effect. Yates explained, “For white children, imaginative and expressive players were rated very positively [by teachers] but the reverse was true for black children. Imaginative and expressive black children were perceived as less ready for school, as less accepted by their peers, and as greater sources of conflict and tension.”

Although it is clear that negative behaviors were magnified through “race-colored glasses,” according to Yates, her study of children engaged in pretend play found that “there is also potentially a systematic devaluing of positive attributes among black children.” This made her concerned about how “very early on, some kids are being educated towards innovation and leadership and others may be educated towards more menial or concrete social positions.”

Reflecting on the 2001 book “Bad Boys” and how little seems to have changed since then, Yates affirmed that author Ferguson’s assertion that black children are given a “hidden curriculum” is still true now. She told me, “Our data suggests that that hidden curriculum may be persisting today and that it’s starting much earlier than we ever could have anticipated.” She noted her deep concern that “we’re actually reproducing inequality generation after generation.”

When I asked her to comment on the Goff study showing police estimates of black children as older than they are, Yates agreed that it appears as though “the same objective data are being interpreted differently as a function of race.” Ferguson also apparently noted this trend, calling it an “adultification” of black boys. Yates recounted an example from Ferguson’s work in which “when a white student fails to return their library book, they’re seen as forgetful and when a black student fails to return a library book, terms like ‘thief’ or ‘looter’ were used.”

Studies such as these consistently show that African-Americans have the deck stacked against them starting in early childhood through adulthood. Taken together, they make a strong case for the existence of a “preschool-to-prison” pipeline and the systematic dehumanization that black children face in American society.

Yates summarized, “Across these different studies, black children are viewed differently. They are consequently given less access to the kinds of structural avenues required to advance in our society and ultimately they become less valued in our culture,” and are ultimately “fast tracked to the margins.”

Daily Beast staff writer Jamelle Bouie, writing about black preschoolers being disproportionately suspended, provocatively asked, “Are Black Students Unruly? Or is America Just Racist?” Yates gave me the obvious answer saying, “We know that [discrimination] exists. It’s the most parsimonious explanation for these kinds of persistent inequalities.”

But perhaps there is also an element of justifiable unruliness involved. Yates offered that “black children—rightfully so—are more likely to disengage from their educational milieus and potentially rebel against them because these systems are at best failing to support them, and at worst channeling them into this pipeline towards negative ends.”

She indicted American society as a whole, saying, “Our educational system, our economic system, our judicial system, all of these are converging to reproduce these kinds of inequalities and perpetuate the criminalization of blacks in our culture.”
Although Attorney General Eric Holder’s push to reform mandatory minimum sentences that disproportionately incarcerate African-Americans is indeed laudable, strong action is needed now to address the early childhood barriers facing black kids. The preschool-to-prison pipeline needs to be dismantled from its starting point rather than simply its endpoint.

Ultimately, “change,” Yates said, “is really going to require effort at all levels such as individual teachers, superintendents, police officers, attorneys general and even in the media.”


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Post time 2014-4-7 07:03:24 |Display all floors
Ynot

Capitalism at its worst, heck we can't have an ever expanding police forces if we do have a clientele to use those forces against. How can the police justify increased budget demands and the demand for new laws to use against us (the people) if it cannot show a reason for those demands. However there are three ideals that people can use against this tyranny, Education and along with a more equal distribution of a nations wealth, but more important than anything , give our young men a sence of reason.

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Post time 2014-4-7 07:27:01 |Display all floors
IMO this is largely because of the difference in tolerance or leeway given to a person of colour (no matter what the age) in expressing themselves negatively (as is normal in the development process) in USAnian society. The same behaviour or expression is explained away with consideration of the feelings of the child, if it happens to be white, but the emphasis becomes on strict implementation of laws or policies when it comes to black children. Children of colour who are obedient easily - Asians do not cop this usually, but if any among them dares to behave just like a white kid, it is dealt with severely. We see this in the attitude towards grown-ups too. This is something of a political hot-potato - no one wants to address this honestly. Ultimately society pays a price for discrimination that is institutionalised.
My friend the Black Swan

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Post time 2014-4-7 07:33:52 |Display all floors
More proof, as if any more were needed, that indoctrination begins in kindergarten in the U.S.
The white bread that makes up the top tier wage slaves are taught to worship their capitalist masters.
The lower tiers are simply taught to suck it up and take what is available to the lowest classes.
There is very little upward mobility in the U.S.
The "success stories" are widely advertised as typical examples instead of the extremely rare exceptions that they really are.

Over the past 33 years the top 1% have enjoyed a boost in real wealth of 250%
The 80-99% have modest gains of 20-50% over that same time period and
the lower 80% have actually lost real worth in the past 33 years.
Even though the lower 80% do all the real work that builds America only the top 1% benefit from this.
In short, capitalism is nothing more than the old master/slave paradigm dresses up as something to admire.

If capitalism promotes innovation and creativity then why aren't scientists and artists the richest people in a capitalist nation?

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Post time 2014-4-7 16:08:17 |Display all floors
robert237 Post time: 2014-4-7 07:33
More proof, as if any more were needed, that indoctrination begins in kindergarten in the U.S.
The w ...

You have a wonderful way with math. How many % is there in 100%?

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Post time 2014-4-8 02:03:22 |Display all floors
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Post time 2014-4-8 05:28:52 |Display all floors
LaughsatYou Post time: 2014-4-8 04:03
This is the same old garbage.

It is related to education, intelligence, and the culture in the fa ...

what you have written qualifies as garbage... new garbage as opposed to old garbage you have written before.
when a society discriminates against a minority within it over a long period of time, it always produces a disproportionate number of problems within that minority. Using those problems to further discriminate and marginalise it makes it worse. I suppose the USA has reached the limits of what it can do to the blacks. This is the result. strangely enough the largest following of some of the 'rap' or gang-culture generated and their largest mimics are white kids, even as far away as Australia. The difference is still in how a kid is treated for the same behaviour by the society and legal system if they happen to be white or coloured... it is not the same, hence the disproportionate number of blacks in prison and in a bad situation in society... all side-effects that are compounded daily.
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