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中国人要买下非洲吗? [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2013-3-30 21:00:57 |Display all floors
By Samuel Burke, CNN

The world's second superpower is pouring billions of dollars into Africa, running oil and mining firms all over the continent.

China is constructing everything from roads and bridges to stadiums and important government buildings.

The headquarters of the African Union, perhaps the most important political building in Africa, was built entirely with Chinese money, to the tune of $200 million.

And while China is aggressively investing in Africa, the U.S. appears to be sitting on the sidelines. China has passed the U.S. to become Africa's biggest trading partner.

Xi Jinping became China's new leader just two weeks ago and right now Xi is in Africa as one part of his first trip abroad as president.

Africa is the world's fastest growing market and has the world's richest mineral reserves, so obviously there's money to be made.

But do the Chinese want more?

Some argue that this is a new form of colonialism – a repeat of Africa's hated past.

Nigeria's central bank governor recently said, “China takes our primary goods and sells us manufactured ones. This was also the essence of colonialism. Africa is now willingly opening itself up to a new form of imperialism."

Many Africans see a thin line between capitalism and colonialism.

Ian Bremmer is the president of the Eurasia Group and he told CNN’s Ali Vleshi that both Africans and Chinese are getting the benefit of this trade and investment.

“Clearly the Chinese are not picky where they invest. They typically go places that the West doesn't have as much.”

As a consequence, Bremmer says the Chinese tends to invest in less developed places that are less democratic and more authoritarian.

In those regions, the African governments may be seeing a lot of cash, but their people are seeing a lot less.

“The Chinese clearly are getting what they want in the deal either way,” Bremmer said.

Even in more democratic countries, the people may be uneasy with the Chinese presence. Bremmer recounted a Nigerian official who told him that the Chinese were by far the most effective trade partner that the Nigerians had – much more so than the United States because the Chinese write checks, plus they are willing to come in and build infrastructure.

And the African governments may prefer this, because unlike the U.S. investment, China doesn’t come with strings attached.

“In the last couple days, Xi Jinping has been down in Africa and he made it very clear that when China comes to Africa, there will not be any political strings. And he's clearly implying that while the United States wants you to be democratic, they want you to pay attention to human rights. So, my God, the Chinese won't do that.”

But Bremmer said there actually are a different set of strings attached.

“The Chinese quid pro quo typically involves lots of Chinese content, lots of Chinese labor that they're sending over to these countries to work, which hurts local unemployment issues. And of course, the availability of commodities, including food, to be exported to China. There's sometimes a Faustian bargain in these countries.”

It appears to be coming without geopolitical or other strategic interest, other than economic gain for China.

“I think it is ultimately good for Africans because Africa is getting governed better," Bremmer said. "Fifty percent of Africa's 1.1 billion people now live in cities. Their women are getting educated. As that happens, you start to see better demographics.

They're more sustainable. There's less poverty, of course, and the government improves. And when the government improves, the investment starts looking less colonial.”

Bremmer said if one day China's investments places like Nigeria come full circle and start looking more colonial, “that government has no one but themselves to blame.”


中国人要买下非洲?

世界第二超级大国正在向非洲输出数十亿美元,在整片大路上开发石油和矿产。

中国正在建设一切,从路桥基建到运动场馆和重要的政府大楼。

非洲最重要的政治建筑非盟总部完全由中方出资建设,耗费2亿美元。

而当中方对非洲投资如火如荼时,美国却只能袖手旁观,中国已超过美国成为非洲最大的贸易伙伴。

就在两周前Xi成为中国新任国家领导人而现在他正在非洲作为他上任后首次国外出访的一部分。

非洲是世界上成长速度最快的市场并拥有世界上最丰富的矿藏存储,显而易见这是一个掘金之地。但中国是否想要更多?

有人指控这是一种新殖民主义,是对非洲人民痛苦过去的重复。

尼日利亚央行官员近日声称:“中国买走初级产品并卖给我们工业成品,这也是殖民主义的本质,非洲现在正自觉沦为新帝国主义的受害人。”

很多非洲人看到了独裁主义与殖民主义的藕断丝连。

欧亚集团主席伊安·布伦莫告诉CNN记者费仲与中国从贸易投资中获得双赢。

“显然中国对投资地点并不苛求,他们去往很多西方并没有涉足的地方。”

甚至在更民主化的国家,民众会因中国进入而不适,布伦莫细述了一名尼日利亚官员的话,作为贸易伙伴,中国在贸易效率上远胜尼日利亚,同样也超过美国,因为中国人写支票,附带的他们很愿意进入并开发基建。

而非洲政府更青睐于此,因为不同于美国人的投资,中国没有更多的附加条款。

“最近几天Xi对非洲的访问让人们看清中国进入非洲没有任何政治捆绑,而美国人向你输出民主时,他们希望你们更注重人权。天呐,中国人从不如此。”

但布伦莫说事实上有另一些捆绑条件。

“中国的回报是以中国的形式出现的,大量中国劳工的输入造成当地失业率上升。自然,包括水在内,有价值的商品被出口到中国。有时这是一种浮士德式交易。”

似乎中国只注重经济利益而毫不考虑地缘政治和其他策略兴趣。

“我认为归根结底是非洲收益因为非洲得到了更好的治理。”布伦莫说,“11亿非洲人口有一半生活在城市,女性开始接受教育。因此,人口统计数据开始转好。他们更可持续。更少的的贫穷,自然有政府的发展,而当政府获得发展,投资就显得不那么殖民主义了。”

布伦莫认为如果有一天中国的投资地区如尼日利亚回到原地并寻找更多殖民主义,“政府可怪不得别人只能怪自己。”


来源:龙腾网

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