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动物也会内疚吗? [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2012-10-18 17:29:07 |Display all floors

当你家狗用它们大大的、带着悲伤的眼睛看着你的时候,它是否感到内疚或意识到你在生它的气?动物对它们的同类所做的事情,能仅靠自己就产生愧疚感吗?让我们来看一些检验这些问题的实验吧!
When your dog looks at you with those big sad eyes, is he guilty or is he just aware that you're angry with him? And can animals, on their own, develop a sense of guilt for what they do to other animals? We take a look at a few experiments that examine these questions.

当我们谈到的“愧疚”用在动物身上,此时我们正在寻找两件事的事实。第一:动物知道某个行为是错的。第二:动物对做错事就只关心一点点。在这种事中被用来做实验的受到优待的动物就是狗了,因为现在狗随处可见,而且狗的主人几年来都在训练从而来辨别它们一些行为是值得表扬的,一些行为是该受批评的。这使得在它们身上做实验这件事看起来有点伤感。
When we talk about "guilt" applying to animals we are looking for two things. The first is that the animals knows some action is wrong. The second is that the animal cares, even a little bit, about doing the wrong thing. The favored animals used for experiments in this kind of thing are dogs, because they are on hand, and because the years that their owners have spent training them to recognize some behavior as deserving of praise and some behavior as deserving of censure. This makes the experiment conducted on them just a little bit sad.

但也不是太悲伤,在狗和狗的主人身上要做一系列的实验。首先,狗和主人都会被放在一个实验室里。狗的主人出去一会儿,然后再回来,任由他们怎么向狗打招呼。这就奠定了一个基础的步骤。接下来的步骤是:尽管在房间里的桌子上放了食物。但是并不允许它们吃。只有主人才可以吃。这是规则。
Not too sad. A series of experiments was done on dogs and their owners. First the dogs and owners were put in a lab room. The owners walked out for a time and came in again, greeting the dog as they did. This established a basic procedure. Next the dogs were shown that, though food was placed on a table in the room, they were not allowed to eat it. Only their owners ate at the table. That established a rule.

接下来就是两个测试。第一个是主人放一点食物在桌子上然后离开房间。狗可以吃也可以不吃。第二个是主人留下食物但是被研究员拿走了,狗没有机会吃它。当主人回到房间的时候,他们要么被告知狗吃了那食物,要么被告知没吃,先不管它们是否吃了。然后主人会责备或者向它们打招呼。
Next were two tests. In the first, the owner put a piece of food on the table and left the room. The dog could eat the food or not. In the second, the food was left by the owner, but taken by a researcher, and the dog didn't get a chance to eat it. When the owners came back in the room, they were either told that the dogs had eaten the food or hadn't, regardless of whether the dog had or not. Then they either scolded or greeted the dog.

第一个测试是针对主人的,如果他们的狗吃了食物,他们会知道吗?大约75%的主人是正确的。但是研究员认为这也许是因为主人知道狗之前的行为。如果狗每次在家里有机会吃到食物的话,那么在实验室里也会表现的和家里差不多。
The first test was on the owner. Could they tell if their dog had eaten the food? About seventy-five percent of owners were right. Researchers thought, though, that this might be as a result of their knowing their dog's previous behavior. If a dog steals food every chance it gets at home, it won't act too differently in a lab.

当狗被责骂的时候,两组都很内疚,表现的差不多。目前看来似乎狗并没有负罪感。然而,在做第三个测试期间,狗甚至没机会吃到食物。当主人和它们打招呼的时候,那些之前吃了食物的狗比那些无辜的狗更有可能表现出负罪感。这可以理解愧疚的迹象,也可理解成它们已经知道偷吃食物加之主人回来意味着责备,然而那些无辜的狗没搞明白为什么它们首当其冲地受到责骂。
When scolded, both groups were equally as likely to act guilty. So far it looked like dogs had no sense of guilty. However, during the third test, when the dogs weren't even given a chance to eat the food. The ones who had eaten the food before were more likely to act guilty when being greeted by their owners than the innocent ones. This could be interpreted as evidence of guilt, or it could be interpreted as having learned that food plus returning owner means scolding, while innocent dogs may have had no idea at all why they were being scolded in the first place.

最后,我们没法知道动物在想什么。有研究表明动物有一种道德感。有一个研究员注意到一些较强的老鼠是不会去吃一组完全分离的被电吓到了的老鼠,甚至在它们很饥饿的情况下也不会。另一些人证明说狼在和一些较弱的狼玩的时候,会十分温和地对它们,而且咬的太重的时候会通过强调说他们只是玩玩而已来不断的改正。你认为哪种情况是对的呢?你希望哪种是对的?你是狗的主人吗?
In the end, we can't know what goes on in an animal's mind. There has been some research that shows that animals have a sense of morality. One researcher noticed that rats, when showed that whenever they ate an entirely separate group of rats were shocked with electricity, didn't eat even when they were hungry. Others documented that wolves seemed to be extremely gentle with weaker wolves when playing, and would make amends - by stressing that they were only playing - when biting too hard. Which situation do you think is correct? Which do you want to be correct? And - are you a dog owner?


来源:译言网

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