Views: 6509|Replies: 1

寻找中国的老照片 [Copy link] 中文

Rank: 8Rank: 8

August's Best Contributor 2012 July's Best Contributor 2012

Post time 2012-7-12 10:55:17 |Display all floors

历史照片在中国存世量稀少,大多毁于文化大革命。然而,如今一场中国老照片的回流工作正在悄然进行中......

中国的照片记录起始于20世纪70年代,时间之所以晚,主要因为几乎之前所有的照片已经损毁。留存世间的,如今也大抵流失海外,不过现在一场旨在收集这些老照片的工作正在网上如火如荼的展开。玛丽·沃劳利如是说。

12年前,北京大学的一位学生拜访了罗伯特·比克斯。
他说他是来研究济慈(译者注:英国诗人)的,然而,他也知道比克斯教授是一位历史学家,同时又是英国布里斯托大学研究中英关系的专家。

这名学生获得了一项旅费资助赴英,同时被特别要求寻找北京大学的老照片。“因为我们没有这些老照片。”中国教授们对他说。

如今,对老照片的狂热席卷中华大地。这种对中国老照片的狂热也使出版业面貌一新——有关老照片的书籍销量倍增。

而这些照片在中国国内格外稀少。动荡的20世纪使得很多档案都在战争、侵略和革命中毁于一旦。毛泽东领导下的政府为了支持新中国,曾把旧中国称为“黑暗”的旧社会,并将一切予以抹杀。而之后20世纪60年代晚期兴起的文化大革命更是完成了这项“使命”。

比斯克教授说:“如果你觉悟够高,早早就会意识到在红卫兵发现你身上残留的资产阶级、反革命等蛛丝马迹前,不得不销毁自己家庭的私人照片,因为上面说不定记录着你在流行的咖啡吧享用咖啡的时光。”

度假照片、影楼婚礼写真和宝宝写真,这些都很危险,非常容易被定罪。于是,人们纷纷销毁了自家影集,同时也抹掉了照片中所记录的中国150年的时光。

然而,现在中国已经开阔了眼界,将目光投向西方和过往,重拾其繁华的历史。

1989年天安门事件之后,中国领导人将其归咎为年轻一代对共产党所做的贡献并非照单全收,于是乎,开始了一项新的雄心勃勃的历史教育活动——爱国主义教育。对老照片的狂热正是这一运动产物的一部分。

然而,中国国内已鲜有这些照片。倒是在那些外国人,很多是英国人家里的阁楼上、衣橱中能够觅得一二,因为这些人曾经在中国生活和工作过,并且在离开中国时,将那些照片完好无损地带出了中国。

比克斯教授正在着手进行一项旨在收集老照片且对外展出的工作。这项工作最早起始于比克斯教授在网上公布了一张曾就职于上海公共租界巡埔房的2000名英国警察的名单。

之后,这些英国警察的家属纷纷与比克斯教授联系,由此找到了更多的相关照片。比克斯教授不无惊讶地说:“这些照片反映了我从未见到过的中国的社会和人文。


拍摄于1910年香港的中国妇女

现在,照片世界各地纷至沓来,几乎反映了旧时中国的方方面面。

这些英国人里有的曾是商人、是传教士、是海关官员,还有的曾是警察,他们相机的足迹遍布中国大地,甚至是人迹罕至的偏远地区。

有的照片,比如蒂娜·海沃德和奥黛丽·格雷格的照片,则反映了当其父母参加商业聚会或忙于社交时,英国孩子与仆人相伴,享受优待和伺候的童年时光。

曾经的警察威廉·阿姆斯特朗的一些照片意外地引起了争议。因为他的照片中记录了20世纪20年代心宽体胖的中国农民,而此前共产党则一直宣称该时段的农民穷困潦倒,饥不果腹。

G·沃伦·斯沃尔的照片记录了太古集团的贸易收益。那些关于仓库和码头的照片或许会被视为枯燥,因为这些不能反映太古曾经的辉煌,而且大多数照片中的景致早已物是人非。

由于中国快速的城市发展,很多有历史价值的建筑和景物已然被高楼大厦所取代,如今它们只存活在人们的记忆和这些照片中。


存世照片中再难见到20世纪初的上海了

然而,在这些照片收藏中,中国政治家、外交家傅秉常拍摄的一套照片可算其中的佼佼者。傅秉常是一位有天赋的业余摄影师,他的作品中恰巧记录了国民党要员。

因此,1949年国民政府垮台后,傅秉常被迫流亡海外,流亡前,他设法将照片走私到了法国。

傅秉常在世时再也没见过这些照片,然而在20世纪70年代初,他的儿子约翰尼接到了一通他父亲的前秘书——陈丁的电话,邀请约翰尼到他居住了20年的法国郊区的圣克劳作客。

约翰尼得以发现一打放满了相片、日记和书画的皮箱,这是一份来自父亲的意外宝藏。

约翰尼年届83,住在英国兰开夏郡,他回忆道:“当日本侵华的时候,我只有12岁,生活在澳门,由于我父亲的身份,我们不得不逃离中国。我们不得不七天七夜日夜兼程,甚至从稻田中补充水分。”

“很幸运能够活下来,能够好好地生活,所以还能够抢救这些照片。”


傅秉常(左)曾是一位资深外交家和摄影爱好者

比克斯教授认为10%的英国人或多或少与中国有些历史渊源,因此他希望这些人能将照片通过网络公布,以完善这套相册。

“这些照片是中国那段被压迫、被英国强权奴役岁月的佐证。”

“我有一种强烈的使命感,这是一项历史偿还,将从中国带走的东西,归还给中国。”

来源:译言网

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 8Rank: 8

August's Best Contributor 2012 July's Best Contributor 2012

Post time 2012-7-12 11:00:10 |Display all floors
This post was edited by ttt222 at 2012-7-12 11:01

The search for photos of China's past
Historical photographs are rare in China, mostly destroyed in the Cultural Revolution. But now the country's pictured past is being reclaimed.

China's photographic record begins only in the 1970s because nearly all earlier pictures were destroyed. The ones that survived are mostly outside China, and a major effort is now under way to bring them together online, says the BBC's Mary Ward-Lowery.


Twelve years ago a student from Peking University knocked on Robert Bickers' door.

He'd come, he said, to study Keats, but he knew Professor Bickers was a historian, a specialist in Sino-British relations at Bristol University.

The student had been given a travel grant to come to the UK, with specific instructions to find historical photographs of Peking University. "Because we don't have any," his Chinese professors told him.

Old photograph fever is currently sweeping China. A new and intense appetite for images of the country's past has resulted in a publishing phenomenon - sales of books of historical photographs have rocketed.


Such photographs are exceptionally rare in China. The turbulent history of the 20th Century meant that many archives were destroyed by war, invasion and revolution. Mao Zedong's government regarded the past as a "black" time, to be erased in favour of the New China. The Cultural Revolution of the late 1960s finished the job.

"If you were at all savvy," says Bickers, "you realised early on that you had to destroy your own private family records, before the Red Guards came and found evidence of your bourgeois, counter-revolutionary past, when you might have drunk coffee in a café bar, à la mode."

Holiday snapshots, studio portraits of weddings and babies, all were dangerously incriminating. So people destroyed their own family collections, rubbing out over 150 years of photographic history in the process.

But now China is opening its horizons, looking to the West and to the past, to reclaim its cosmopolitan history.

After the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, Chinese leaders concluded that young people did not fully appreciate what the Communist Party had done for China, so they began an ambitious new policy of historical education, the Patriotic Education Movement. The craze for old photographs is partly a by-product of this movement.

But such photographs are not to be found in China. They are in the attics and wardrobes of foreigners - many British - whose families once lived and worked in China and who took their photographs safely out of the country when they left.

Bickers is leading a project to collect the photographs and make them freely available. It started when he put online a list of 2,000 British policemen who had worked in the Shanghai Municipal Police.

Relatives contacted him to find out more, attaching photographs. Bickers was astonished. "There were photos of Chinese society, culture and people that I have never seen before. I had never seen anything like them," he says.


These women were pictured in 1910 Hong Kong

Now the photographs arrive from all sorts of people and places, ranging across every possible subject and every part of China.
The British - businessmen, missionaries, customs officers and police - were everywhere, even in remote places where very few people even possessed a camera.

Some collections, like those of Tita Hayward and Audrey Gregg, record a childhood of privilege and frivolity spent mostly in the company of servants, as their parents attended to business and a hectic social life.

There are unintentionally controversial photographs by policeman William Armstrong, depicting plump and contented peasants in the 1920s, whereas communist propaganda suggested they were starving and unhappy.

G Warren Swire's collection records the trading interests of John Swire & Sons. His photographs of warehouses and dockyards might be thought dull were it not for Swire's careful - and beautiful - compositions and the fact that most of these landscapes no longer exist.

Rapid urban development in China has meant that historic buildings and neighbourhoods have been swept away and replaced with skyscrapers. They exist now only in people's memories or in these photographs.


Few photos exist of shipping in Shanghai in the early 1900s

One of the treasures of the collection, however, is a set of photographs taken by a Chinese politician and diplomat, Fu Bingchang. Fu was a talented amateur photographer and his subjects just happen to include the Kuomintang elite.

When the Nationalist government fell in 1949, Fu was sent into exile but before he left he arranged for his papers to be smuggled to France.

Fu never saw them again but in the early 70s, his son Johnny received a phone call from Fu's former secretary, Chen Ding, inviting him to his house in St Cloud, the Paris suburb where he'd lived for the past 20 years.

Johnny discovered a dozen leather suitcases full of photographs, diaries and paintings, an incredible treasure trove, a gift from his father.

"I was 12 years old and living in Macao when the Japanese attacked," recalls Johnny, now 83 and living in Lancashire in the UK.

"We had to run away because of my father's position. We had to walk for seven days non-stop, drinking water from paddy fields.


"I was lucky to be alive, lucky to carry the clothes on my back, so we were very lucky to be able to salvage the photos."


Fu Bingchang (left) was a senior diplomat and keen photographer

Bickers calculates that one British person in 10 has some historical connection to China and he wants their photographs to add to the online collection.

"These photos are an inadvertent legacy of that period of national humiliation, of British supremacy in China.

"I feel strongly that this is an act of historical restitution, giving back to China something that's now here, that was taken."

The slideshow at the top of the page includes the voices of Tita Hayward and Audrey Gregg (who as children both lived in China), Robert Bickers and Jamie Carstairs from the University of Bristol, and Foo Chung Hung (Johnny) and Yee Wah Foo (son and granddaughter of Chinese diplomat Fu Bingchang).

All images subject to copyright. Click on bottom right icon for captions. Music by KPM Music. Slideshow by Paul Kerley.

Publication date 11 July 2012.

Source: BBC News

Use magic tools Report

You can't reply post until you log in Log in | register

BACK TO THE TOP
Contact us:Tel: (86)010-84883548, Email: blog@chinadaily.com.cn
Blog announcement:| We reserve the right, and you authorize us, to use content, including words, photos and videos, which you provide to our blog
platform, for non-profit purposes on China Daily media, comprising newspaper, website, iPad and other social media accounts.