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In ancient times Jilin was inhabited by various peoples, notably the Mohe (mò hé 靺鞨) and the Wùjí (wù jí 勿吉). It also formed a part of the Koguryeo (gāo gōu lì 高句丽) kingdom and Jilin Province was under various administrations in different historical periods. It was called Donghu (dōng hú 东胡) in the Qin (qín 秦) Dynasty (221 B.C. - 207 B.C.) and Han (hàn 汉) Dynasty (206 B.C-220 A.D), under the administration of the Liaoyang (liáo yang 辽阳) Xingzhongshu (xíng zhōng shū shěng 行中书省) Province in Yuan (yuán 元) Dynasty (1271-1368), known as Nuzhen (nǚ zhēn 女真) in the Ming (míng 明) Dynasty (1368-1644), it became Jilin Province in the Qing (qīng 清) Dynasty (1644-1911). By the beginning of the twentieth century, Han Chinese had become the dominant ethnic group of the region. In 1932, the area was incorporated into Manchukuo, a puppet state set up by Japan, and Changchun (then called Hsinking), capital of Jilin today, was made the capital of Manchukuo (mǎn zhōu guó 满洲国). After the defeat of Japan in 1945, the region, together with the rest of northeastern China, was handed to the communists by the Soviet Union. In 1949, Jilin province was smaller; encompassing only the environs of Changchun and Jilin City, and the capital was at Jilin City, while Changchun was a municipality independent from the province. In the 1950s Jilin was expanded to its present borders. During the Cultural Revolution, Jilin was expanded again to include a part of Inner Mongolia, giving it a border with the independent state of Mongolia, though this was later reversed. In recent times Jilin has, together with the rest of heavy industry-based Northeast China, been facing economic difficulties with privatization. This has prompted the central government to undertake a campaign called "Revitalize the Northeast".
Geography and Climate
Jilin lies in the central part of northeastern China, bordering Russia and North Korea in the east and southeast respectively. Jilin has a total area of 190,000 square kilometers and a total population of 27.3 million capitals is Changchun, which lies 113 kilometers west of Jilin City. Jilin province is rich in natural mineral deposits with 136 different types of minerals, of which 70 have already been extracted. Jilin has abundance of Traditional Chinese medicine resources, with approximately 27,000 kinds of wild plants and 9,000 kinds of medicinal herbs. Also the province is rich in large reserves of oil, gas, coal, iron mine, nickel, molybdenum, talc, graphite, gypsum, cement rock, gold and silver; its reserves of oil shale are the largest in the country. Jilin is highest in altitude in the southeast, and drops gently towards the northwest. The Changbai Mountains run through its southeastern regions, and contains the highest peak of the province, Baiyun (bái yún 白云) Peak at 2691 m. Other mountain ranges include the Jilinhada (jí lín hā dá 吉林哈达) Mountains, Zhang Guangcai (zhāng guǎng cái 张广才) Mountains, and Longgang (lóng gǎng 龙岗) Mountains. Jilin is drained by the Yalu (yā lǜ 鸭绿) and Tumen (tú men 图们) Rivers in the extreme southwest (which together form the border between the People's Republic of China and North Korea), by tributaries of the Liao River along the southern border, and by the Songhua (sōng huā 松花) and Nen (nèn 嫩) rivers, both eventually flowing into the Amur.
Jilin has a northerly continental monsoon climate and the winter is long and severe. The average temperature in January is between -14ºC (6.8 ºF) and -20C (-1ºF), with the temperature in the Changbai Mountain region being below the average. Summer is usually cool with an average temperature 16ºC (60.8 ºF) and 24ºC (75.2 ºF) in July, while it is cooler in some mountain areas. Spring and autumn are windy with changeable weather. The annual average rainfall ranges from 400mm to 800mm.The "Tianchi (tiān chí 天池)" (heavenly Lake) on top of the Changbai Mountain, the southern part of the Tonghua (tōng huà 通化) Prefecture and the areas south of the Laoling (lǎo lǐng 老岭) receive more rain than other places of the province.