Author: angela627

Funny PS photos: when women ruling the world   [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2011-12-24 03:56:22 |Display all floors
This post was edited by bahugboto at 2011-12-24 04:10

Enough of your manipulation with mere words , let me just post the entire post from medical education online You seem to have selective memory!

Studies that have looked at differences in the brains of males and females have focused on:
(1)   Total brain size: In adults, the average brain weight in men is about 11-12% MORE than the average brain weight in women. Men's heads are also about 2% bigger than women's. . This is due to the larger physical stature of men. Male’s larger muscle mass, and larger body size require more neurons to control them. This does not suggest that due to the larger brain, males are smarter than females.
(2)   Cell number: men have 4% more  brain cells than women , and about 100 grams more of brain tissue. this may explain why women are more prone to dementia (such as Alzheimer's disease) than  men, because although both may lose the same number of neurons due to the disease, "in males, the functional reserve may be greater as a larger number of nerve cells are present, which could prevent some of the functional losses."
(3)   Cellular connections: while men have more neurons in the cerebral cortex, women have a more developed neuropil, or the space between cell bodies, which contains synapses, dendrites and axons, and allows for communication among neurons .
(4)   Corpus callosum: it is reported that a woman's brain has a larger corpus collusum, which means women can transfer data between the right and left hemisphere faster than men. Men tend to be more left brained, while women have greater access to both sides.(however other studies have told a different story).
(5)   Hypothalamus: LeVay discovered that the volume of a specific nucleus in the hypothalamus (third cell group of the interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus) is twice as large in heterosexual men than in women and homosexual men, thus prompting a heated debate whether there is a biological basis for homosexuality .
(6)   Language: two areas in the frontal and temporal lobes related to language (the areas of Broca and Wernicke) were significantly larger in women, thus providing a biological reason for women's notorious superiority in language-associated thoughts. For men, language is most often just in the dominant hemisphere (usually the left side), but a larger number of women seem to be able to use both sides for language. This gives them a distinct advantage. If a woman has a stroke in the left front side of the brain, she may still retain some language from the right front side. Men who have the same left sided damage are less likely to recover as fully. Curiously, oriental people which use pictographic (or ideographic) written languages tend also to use both sides of the brain, regardless of gender.
(7)   Inferior parietal lobule (IPL): it is a brain region in the cortex, which is significantly larger in men than in women. This area is bilateral and is located just above the level of the ears (parietal cortex). Furthermore, the left side IPL is larger in men than the right side. In women, this asymmetry is reversed, although the difference between left and right sides is not so large as in men. This is the same area which was shown to be larger in the brain of Albert Einstein, as well as in other physicists and mathematicians. So, it seems that IPL's size correlates highly with mental mathematical abilities. Studies have linked the right IPL with the memory involved in understanding and manipulating spatial relationships and the ability to sense relationships between body parts. It is also related to the perception of our own affects or feelings. The left IPL is involved with perception of time and speed, and the ability of mentally rotate 3-D figures .
(8)    Orbitofrontal to amygdale ratio (OAR): In one project, they measured the size of the orbitofrontal cortex, a region involved in regulating emotions, and compared it with the size of the amygdala, implicated more in producing emotional reactions. The investigators found that women possess a significantly larger orbitofrontal-to-amygdala ratio (OAR) than men do. One can speculate from these findings that women might on average prove more capable of controlling their emotional reactions.
(9)   Limbic size: females, on average, have a larger deep limbic system than males. This gives females several advantages and disadvantages. Due to the larger deep limbic brain women are more in touch with their feelings, they are generally better able to express their feelings than men. They have an increased ability to bond and be connected to others . Females have a more acute sense of smell, which is likely to have developed from an evolutionary need for the mother to recognize her young. Having a larger deep limbic system leaves a female somewhat more susceptible to depression, especially at times of significant hormonal changes such as the onset of puberty, before menses, after the birth of a child and at menopause. Women attempt suicide three times more than men. Yet, men kill themselves three times more than women, in part, because they use more violent means of killing themselves (women tend to use overdoses with pills while men tend to either shoot or hang themselves) and men are generally less connected to others than are women. Disconnection from others increases the risk of completed suicides.

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Post time 2011-12-24 03:59:06 |Display all floors
This post was edited by bahugboto at 2011-12-24 04:11

Now things get interesting, an article from Neuroscience News

Cerebellum Grey Matter Volume Used to Predict General Intelligence

Researchers believe they found a link between the volume of one’s cerebellum and general intelligence.

Neuroimaging was used on 228 older adults that lived independently in the Aberdeen area of Scotland. These subjects were born in 1936 and tested at school in 1947 using the Moray House intelligence test. The 228 adults were tested again when they were 63-65 years old and had the voxel-based morphometry neuroimaging technique applied. The volumes of grey and white matter in frontal brain areas and the cerebellum were compared using the neuroimaging results.

The press release covering the findings claims researchers found that the volume of grey matter in the cerebellum could be used to predict intelligence. The volume-to-intelligence relationship strength differed in men and women, with men showing a stronger correlation between the two.

Experiments such as this have large amounts of variables which should be accounted for before extremely useful data can be applied to the general population. Opinions regarding intelligence testing, neuroimaging results, environmental differences and countless other variables are sure to differ greatly on such a heated topic and rightly so. Nevertheless, this research provides some proof that the cerebellum may play a larger role in intelligence than was previously understood by many.

Readers and researchers interested in linking physical activity to better cognition may find this research useful as will those interested in intelligence, cerebellar functions and aging in the brain.

Further details are provided in the original press release below.
The cerebellum provides clues to the nature of human intelligence

New study suggests link between cerebellar volume and cognitive ability in older adults

Research suggests that intelligence in humans is controlled by the part of the brain known as the ‘cortex’, and most theories of age-related cognitive decline focus on cortical dysfunction. However, a new study of Scottish older adults, reported in the April 2011 issue of Elsevier’s Cortex, suggests that grey matter volume in the ‘cerebellum’ at the back of the brain predicts cognitive ability, and keeping those cerebellar networks active may be the key to keeping cognitive decline at bay.

The study looked at 228 older adults living independently in the Aberdeen area, who had been part of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947. This survey had tested Scottish children born in 1936 and at school on 4th June 1947 using the Moray House intelligence test. The cognitive abilities of the participants were tested again, now at age 63-65 years, and their brains were also scanned, using a neuroimaging technique called voxel-based morphometry (VBM), to determine the volumes of grey and white matter in frontal areas and the cerebellum.

The most interesting finding from this study is that grey matter volume in the cerebellum predicts general intelligence. However, results differ for men and women, with men showing a stronger relationship between brain volume in the cerebellum and general intelligence.

It has long been recognised that the cerebellum is involved in sensory-motor functions, including balance and timing of movements, but it is now believed that the cerebellum also plays an important role in higher-level cognitive abilities. “General intelligence is correlated with many basic aspects of information processing efficiency which I believe depend upon the functioning of the cerebellum, including the speed and consistency of our perceptions and decisions, and the speed with which we learn new skills”, notes Dr. Michael Hogan, first author of the study. “This is exciting research, as it suggests that there may be a backdoor route into maintaining higher cortical functions in old age, that is, through the sustained activation of cerebellar networks via novel sensory-motor and cognitive activities, all of which I believe the cerebellum seeks to regulate and automate, working in concert with the cortex.”

Notes about this neuroscience press release

Contact: Laura Fabril – Elsevier.com
Source: Elsevier press release
Read the original research PDF for the huge fee of $31.50 from Science Direct.  (NeuroscienceNews.com is definitely not affiliated.)
Image Source: Image adapted from public domain brain cerebellum image at Wikimedia Commons

MRI brain image with cerebellum highlighted with cheesy light bulb hovering.

Just so you don't manipulate "words" again.

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Post time 2011-12-24 04:00:40 |Display all floors
This post was edited by bahugboto at 2011-12-24 04:48

Now step by step to get your Grey matter juiced up, let me educate you my oh so lovely teacher.



There are never any medical evidence whatsoever that white matter contributes to intelligence, while it's widely known that Grey matter contributes to the processing power of the brain, not that women have much white matter to begin with, men simply have close to none! The problem is a women grey matter which is the only study proven to have any significane on a persons intelligence and the speed at which they process information, is vastly inferior.

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Post time 2011-12-24 04:09:55 |Display all floors
This post was edited by bahugboto at 2011-12-24 04:15

Again the article from Science Daily which you selectively left out :)

ScienceDaily: Your source for the latest research news and science breakthroughs -- updated daily
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Intelligence In Men And Women Is A Gray And White Matter

ScienceDaily (Jan. 21, 2005) — Irvine, Calif. (January 20, 2005) -- While there are essentially no disparities in general intelligence between the sexes, a UC Irvine study has found significant differences in brain areas where males and females manifest their intelligence.

The study shows women having more white matter and men more gray matter related to intellectual skill, revealing that no single neuroanatomical structure determines general intelligence and that different types of brain designs are capable of producing equivalent intellectual performance.

“These findings suggest that human evolution has created two different types of brains designed for equally intelligent behavior,” said Richard Haier, professor of psychology in the Department of Pediatrics and longtime human intelligence researcher, who led the study with colleagues at UCI and the University of New Mexico. “In addition, by pinpointing these gender-based intelligence areas, the study has the potential to aid research on dementia and other cognitive-impairment diseases in the brain.”

Study results appear on the online version of NeuroImage.

In general, men have approximately 6.5 times the amount of gray matter related to general intelligence than women, and women have nearly 10 times the amount of white matter related to intelligence than men. Gray matter represents information processing centers in the brain, and white matter represents the networking of – or connections between – these processing centers.

This, according to Rex Jung, a UNM neuropsychologist and co-author of the study, may help to explain why men tend to excel in tasks requiring more local processing (like mathematics), while women tend to excel at integrating and assimilating information from distributed gray-matter regions in the brain, such as required for language facility. These two very different neurological pathways and activity centers, however, result in equivalent overall performance on broad measures of cognitive ability, such as those found on intelligence tests.

The study also identified regional differences with intelligence. For example, 84 percent of gray-matter regions and 86 percent of white-matter regions involved with intellectual performance in women were found in the brain’s frontal lobes, compared to 45 percent and zero percent for males, respectively. The gray matter driving male intellectual performance is distributed throughout more of the brain.

According to the researchers, this more centralized intelligence processing in women is consistent with clinical findings that frontal brain injuries can be more detrimental to cognitive performance in women than men. Studies such as these, Haier and Jung add, someday may help lead to earlier diagnoses of brain disorders in males and females, as well as more effective and precise treatment protocols to address damage to particular regions in the brain.

For this study, UCI and UNM combined their respective neuroimaging technology and subject pools to study brain morphology with magnetic resonance imaging. MRI scanning and cognitive testing involved subjects at UCI and UNM. Using a technique called voxel-based morphometry, Haier and his UCI colleagues converted these MRI pictures into structural brain “maps” that correlated brain tissue volume with IQ.

Dr. Michael T. Alkire and Kevin Head of UCI and Ronald A. Yeo of UNM participated in the study, which was supported in part by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

About the University of California, Irvine: The University of California, Irvine is a top-ranked public university dedicated to research, scholarship and community service. Founded in 1965, UCI is among the fastest-growing University of California campuses, with more than 24,000 undergraduate and graduate students and about 1,400 faculty members. The second-largest employer in dynamic Orange County, UCI contributes an annual economic impact of $3 billion.

Notice the Red colour represents your misdirection attempt, which you are known to do, it is completely Jargon in relevance when it comes to the bolded paragraph that i highlighted next. Either you are not smart enough to comprehend the article or you have selective memory - which i assume is the case with you{:soso_e180:}

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Post time 2011-12-24 04:25:08 |Display all floors
This post was edited by bahugboto at 2011-12-24 04:25

Further research into the corelation of brain size and intelligence.

Brain size and intelligence are related

People with bigger brains are smarter than their smaller-brained counterparts, according to a study conducted by a Virginia Commonwealth University researcher published in the journal "Intelligence."

The study could settle a long-standing scientific debate about the relationship between brain size and intelligence. Ever since German anatomist and physiologist Frederick Tiedmann wrote in 1836 that there exists "an indisputable connection between the size of the brain and the mental energy displayed by the individual man," scientists have been searching for biological evidence to prove his claim.

"For all age and sex groups, it is now very clear that brain volume and intelligence are related," said lead researcher Michael A. McDaniel, Ph.D., an industrial and organizational psychologist who specializes in the study of intelligence and other predictors of job performance.

The study is the most comprehensive of its kind, drawing conclusions from 26 previous - mostly recent - international studies involving brain volume and intelligence. It was only five years ago, with the increased use of MRI-based brain assessments, that more data relating to brain volume and intelligence became available.

McDaniel, a professor in management in VCU's School of Business, found that, on average, intelligence increases with increasing brain volume. Intelligence was measured with standardized intelligence tests, which have important consequences on peoples' lives, such as where they'll go to college or what kind of job they get. Critics have called the tests inaccurate or irrelevant to the real world, he said.

"But when intelligence is correlated with a biological reality such as brain volume, it becomes harder to argue that human intelligence can't be measured or that the scores do not reflect something meaningful," said McDaniel.

As an industrial and organizational psychologist, McDaniel works with employers to screen job applicants and measure their performance. He said employers will appreciate his findings because intelligence tests are the single best predictor of job performance.

"On average, smarter people learn quicker, make fewer errors, and are more productive," McDaniel said. "The use of intelligence tests in screening job applicants has substantial economic benefits for organizations."

Before MRIs, scientists often used external skull measurements or waited until a person died to estimate brain size. The external skull measurements were only approximate estimates of brain volume.

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Post time 2011-12-24 04:38:29 |Display all floors
This post was edited by bahugboto at 2011-12-24 05:02

Men also score higher than women in IQ test, and when it comes to math and spatial intelligence the disparity is far greater and when it comes to the disparity in male geniuses well we don't even need to go there! Despite the fact that there are equally as many educated females as males, they ended up working in lower tier jobs in the end, you know why? Those male geniuses who quit school early went on to set up companies like Microsoft and Apple I guess to male, less work, more money are always the better way as i said male a far more objective based, why go through the trouble to memorize nonsense when you have the talent and ability to make it big and make huge sum of money, do it right away. It might also explain why almost all the hackers and organized crime syndicates are run by men, boldness, intelligence and practicality can lead to the dark side as well if morality is not kept in check

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Post time 2011-12-24 21:08:40 |Display all floors
This topic should be made permanent because there are so much more to explore about the vast differences in both sexes brain, everyone should feel free to add their opinions on this issue.

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