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ANGLO INVENTIONS - !!! [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2010-1-31 06:09:10 |Display all floors
Not an invention but a great discovery:

Calculus-Isaac Newton.

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Post time 2010-1-31 09:48:21 |Display all floors

MORE ANGLO LIES!

Originally posted by St_George at 2010-1-31 06:09
Not an invention but a great discovery:

Calculus-Isaac Newton.


Here is the truth:

Calculating volumes and areas, the basic function of integral calculus, can be traced back to the Moscow papyrus (c. 1820 BC), in which an Egyptian mathematician successfully calculated the volume of a pyramidal frustum.[1][2]

Greek geometers are credited with a significant use of infinitesimals. Democritus is the first person recorded to consider seriously the division of objects into an infinite number of cross-sections, but his inability to rationalize discrete cross-sections with a cone's smooth slope prevented him from accepting the idea. At approximately the same time, Zeno of Elea discredited infinitesimals further by his articulation of the paradoxes which they create.

Antiphon and later Eudoxus are generally credited with implementing the method of exhaustion, which made it possible to compute the area and volume of regions and solids by breaking them up into an infinite number of recognizable shapes. Archimedes developed this method further, while also inventing heuristic methods which resemble modern day concepts somewhat. (See Archimedes' Quadrature of the Parabola, The Method, Archimedes on Spheres & Cylinders.[3]) It was not until the time of Newton that these methods were made obsolete. It should not be thought that infinitesimals were put on rigorous footing during this time, however. Only when it was supplemented by a proper geometric proof would Greek mathematicians accept a proposition as true.

In the third century Liu Hui wrote his Nine Chapters and also Haidao suanjing (Sea Island Mathematical Manual), which dealt with using the Pythagorean theorem (already stated in the Nine Chapters), known in China as the Gougu theorem, to measure the size of things. He discovered the usage of Cavalieri's principle to find an accurate formula for the volume of a cylinder, showing a grasp of elementary concepts associated with the differential and integral calculus. In the 11th century, the Chinese polymath, Shen Kuo, developed 'packing' equations that dealt with integration.

Indian mathematicians produced a number of works with some ideas of calculus. The formula for the sum of the cubes was first written by Aryabhata circa 500 AD, in order to find the volume of a cube, which was an important step in the development of integral calculus.[4]

The next major step in integral calculus came in the 11th century, when Ibn al-Haytham (known as Alhacen in Europe), an Iraqi mathematician working in Egypt, devised what is now known as "Alhazen's problem", which leads to an equation of the fourth degree, in his Book of Optics. While solving this problem, he was the first mathematician to derive the formula for the sum of the fourth powers, using a method that is readily generalizable for determining the general formula for the sum of any integral powers. He performed an integration in order to find the volume of a paraboloid, and was able to generalize his result for the integrals of polynomials up to the fourth degree. He thus came close to finding a general formula for the integrals of polynomials, but he was not concerned with any polynomials higher than the fourth degree.[4]

In the 17th century, Pierre de Fermat, among other things, is credited with an ingenious trick for evaluating the integral of any power function directly, thus providing a valuable clue to Newton and Leibniz in their development of the fundamental theorem of calculus.[5] Fermat also obtained a technique for finding the centers of gravity of various plane and solid figures, which influenced further work in quadrature.

At around the same time, there was also a great deal of work being done by Japanese mathematicians, particularly Kowa Seki.[6] He made a number of contributions, namely in methods of determining areas of figures using integrals, extending the method of exhaustion. While these methods of finding areas were made largely obsolete by the development of the fundamental theorems by Newton and Leibniz, they still show that a sophisticated knowledge of mathematics existed in 17th century Japan.
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Post time 2010-1-31 09:50:35 |Display all floors
The Greek mathematician Archimedes was the first to find the tangent to a curve, other than a circle, in a method akin to differential calculus. While studying the spiral, he separated a point's motion into two components, one radial motion component and one circular motion component, and then continued to add the two component motions together thereby finding the tangent to the curve.[7]

The Indian mathematician-astronomer Aryabhata in 499 used a notion of infinitesimals and expressed an astronomical problem in the form of a basic differential equation.[8] Manjula, in the 10th century, elaborated on this differential equation in a commentary. This equation eventually led Bhāskara II in the 12th century to develop the concept of a derivative representing infinitesimal change, and he described an early form of "Rolle's theorem".[8][9][10]

In the late 12th century, the Persian mathematician, Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī, introduced the idea of a function. In his analysis of the equation x3 + d = bx2 for example, he begins by changing the equation's form to x2(b − x) = d. He then states that the question of whether the equation has a solution depends on whether or not the “function” on the left side reaches the value d. To determine this, he finds a maximum value for the function. Sharaf al-Din then states that if this value is less than d, there are no positive solutions; if it is equal to d, then there is one solution; and if it is greater than d, then there are two solutions. However, his work was never followed up on in either Europe or the Islamic world.[11]

Sharaf al-Dīn was also the first to discover the derivative of cubic polynomials.[12] His Treatise on Equations developed concepts related to differential calculus, such as the derivative function and the maxima and minima of curves, in order to solve cubic equations which may not have positive solutions. For example, in order to solve the equation x3 + a = bx, al-Tusi finds the maximum point of the curve y = bx - x^3\,\!. He uses the derivative of the function to find that the maximum point occurs at \textstyle x = \sqrt{\frac{b}{3}}\,\!, and then finds the maximum value for y at \textstyle 2(\frac{b}{3})^\frac{3}{2}\,\! by substituting \textstyle x = \sqrt{\frac{b}{3}}\,\! back into y = bx - x^3\,\!. He finds that the equation bx - x^3 = a\,\! has a solution if \textstyle a \le 2(\frac{b}{3})^\frac{3}{2}\,\!, and al-Tusi thus deduces that the equation has a positive root if \textstyle D = \frac{b^3}{27} - \frac{a^2}{4} \ge 0\,\!, where D\,\! is the discriminant of the equation.[13]

In the 15th century, an early version of the mean value theorem was first described by Parameshvara (1370–1460) from the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics in his commentaries on Govindasvāmi and Bhaskara II.[14]

In the 17th century, European mathematicians Isaac Barrow, Pierre de Fermat, Blaise Pascal, John Wallis and others discussed the idea of a derivative. In particular, in Methodus ad disquirendam maximam et minima and in De tangentibus linearum curvarum, Fermat developed a method for determining maxima, minima, and tangents to various curves that was equivalent to differentiation.[15] Isaac Newton would later write that his own early ideas about calculus came directly from "Fermat's way of drawing tangents."[16]

The first proof of Rolle's theorem was given by Michel Rolle in 1691 after the founding of modern calculus. The mean value theorem in its modern form was stated by Augustin Louis Cauchy (1789-1857) also after the founding of modern calculus.
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Post time 2010-1-31 15:41:45 |Display all floors
Leibnitz was a contender but it was shown that Newton did indeed discover calculus years before.

Recommended reading for a novice like you Mechanic; ' A brief history of time'  Stephen Hawking :)

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Post time 2010-1-31 21:13:50 |Display all floors
Originally posted by St_George at 2010-1-31 15:41
Leibnitz was a contender but it was shown that Newton did indeed discover calculus years before.

Recommended reading for a novice like you Mechanic; ' A brief history of time'  Stephen Hawking :)


Do you actually know what calculus is, Anglo? Have you ever used it?

And, are you saying that wiki is lying about the history of calculus OR CAN'T YOU READ, fool?
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Post time 2010-5-29 20:17:03 |Display all floors

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Post time 2010-5-29 21:18:28 |Display all floors
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