Views: 15308|Replies: 109

The Arabs invented what? [Copy link] 中文

Rank: 8Rank: 8

Medal Medal of honor Gold Medal July's Best Writer 2012 October's Best Writer 2012

Post time 2009-3-21 00:04:53 |Display all floors
Much has been said about Chinese invention.

Much has been said about Western invention.

But what have Arabs invented?

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 8Rank: 8

Post time 2009-3-21 00:08:50 |Display all floors
Arab contributions to mathematics and the introduction of the Zero
Regional, Science, 4/22/1998

Arab contributions to human civilization are noteworthy. In arithmetic the style of writing digits from right to left is an evidence of its Arab origin. For instance, the numeral for five hundred in English should be written as 005, not as 500 according to English's left-to-right reading style.

Another invention that revolutionized mathematics was the introduction of the number zero by Muhammad Bin Ahmad in 967 AD. Zero was introduced in the West as late as the beginning of the thirteenth century. Modern society takes the invention of the zero for granted, yet the Zero is a non-trivial concept, that allowed major mathematical breakthroughs.

Arab civilizations also made a great contribution to fractions and to the principle of errors, which is employed to solve Algebra problems arithmetically.

Concerning Algebra, al-Khawarzmi is credited with the first treatise. He solved Algebra equations of the first and second degree (known as quadratic equations, and are are prevelant in science and engineering) and also introduced the geometrical method of solving these equations.

He also recognized that quadratic equations have two roots. His method was continued by Thabet Bin Qura, the translator of Ptolemy's works who developed Algebra and first realized application in geometry. By the 11th century the Arabs had founded, developed and perfected geometrical algebra and could solve equations of the third and fourth degree.

Another outstanding Arab mathematician is Abul Wafa who created and successfully developed a branch of geometry which consists of problems leading to equations in Algebra of a higher degree than the second. He made a number of valuable contributions to polyhedral theory.

Al-Karaki, of the 11th century is considered to be one of the greatest Arab mathematicians. He composed one arithmetic book and another on Algebra. In the two books, he developed an approximate method of finding square roots, a theory of indices, a theory of mathematical induction and a theory of intermediate quadratic equations.

Arabs have excelled in geometry, starting with the transition of Euclid and conic section of Apolonios and they preserved the genuine works of these two Greek masters for the modern world, by the 9th century AD. and then started making new discoveries in this domain.

In his book translated by Roger Bacon, Ibn al-Haitham wrote a book on geometrical optics, dealing with problems that would be difficult to solve even now.

It is also at the hand of the Arabs that the geometry of conic sections was developed to a great extent.

However, Arab achievements in this field were crowned by the discovery made by Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Hassan, known as Nassereddine al-Tusi. Al-Tusi separated trigonometry from astronomy. This contribution recognizes and explains weakness in Euclid's theory of parallels, and thereby may thus be credited as founder of non-Euclidian geometry.

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 8Rank: 8

Medal Medal of honor Gold Medal July's Best Writer 2012 October's Best Writer 2012

Post time 2009-3-21 00:34:53 |Display all floors

Augusten

Thank you.

That is a cracking answer to the question and really well answered.

This dies here.

Unless??

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 4

Post time 2009-3-21 00:46:52 |Display all floors
Arab contributions to mathematics and the introduction of the Zero
========================================
just like the four great inventions of ancient China!
but, then?

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 8Rank: 8

Medal Medal of honor Gold Medal July's Best Writer 2012 October's Best Writer 2012

Post time 2009-3-21 09:34:40 |Display all floors
So Arabs contributed Zero to inventions of the world?

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 8Rank: 8

Medal Medal of honor Gold Medal July's Best Writer 2012 October's Best Writer 2012

Post time 2009-3-22 18:23:48 |Display all floors

Seneca

Hi,

Thanks for that. I decided to have a little poke around the Internet for more information and these are just some notes.

Some History on Perfume
10th Century BC: The Medes, ancestors of today’s, Kurds are generally given credit for the invention and widespread use of perfumes, presumably to hide certain smells originating from overeating and failure to observe what are now common hygienic practices.    FragranceWholesale.com

Perfume is thousands of years old - the word "perfume" comes from the Latin per fume "through smoke". One of the oldest uses of perfumes comes from the burning of incense and aromatic herbs used in religious services, often the aromatic gums, frankincense and myrrh, gathered from trees. The Egyptians were the first to incorporate perfume into their culture followed by the ancient Chinese, Hindus, Israelites, Carthaginians, Arabs, Greeks, and Romans. The earliest use of perfume bottles is Egyptian and dates to around 1000 BC. The Egyptians invented glass and perfume bottles were one of the first common uses for glass.

Alchemy, generally, derives from the Old French alkemie; from the Arabic al-kimia: "the art of transformation." Some scholars believe the Arabs borrowed the word kimia ("χημεία") from Greek for transmutation.  Others, such as Mahdihassan,  argue that its origins are Chinese.
   
Apparently, chemistry is just another version of the Greek borrowed to Persian world of Kimi and represent the same thing, i.e, alchemy.   (Wikipedia)

So according to these sources, perfume was used by the Egyptians first.  All very interesting.

Beer and wine indeed by all accounts very popular as far back as 2,700 B.C in Babylon and Egypt and other places even since 7,000 B.C in Neolithic times. The word alcohol comes from the Arabic ‘al Kuhul’, but no one knows when it was first used or by whom. Alcohol is believed to be the oldest and probably the most widely used drug in the world.  Strange that Arabs are banned from it now though.

The word sugar is an Arabic imitation of the Sanskrit word "karkara", meaning small chunks of material (gravel-like). The word candy is derived from the Arabic version of the Sanskrit word "khandakah" which is the Sanskrit word for sugar.  Although Arabs were not the first to use sugar as it is purported to originally have come from the South Pacific travelled with migration to Asia.

I think that even Ghengis Khan, notable for his brutal savagery in the Arabs regions, was extremely impressed with the achievements of this region.  It seems that both China and the Arab regions were very well known for their innovation and cultural achievements before the Dark Ages.

Cheers

Use magic tools Report

Rank: 8Rank: 8

Post time 2009-3-22 18:54:44 |Display all floors
Originally posted by expatter at 2009-3-21 02:04
Much has been said about Chinese invention.

Much has been said about Western invention.

But what have Arabs invented?


Well isn't Mesopotamia (Iraq) regarded as the "cradle of civilisation" ?

The development of Algebra and other mathematical processes led to much progress in astronomy, architecture and so on.
In relation to beer being developed in that part of the world, one must thank them very much !!

[ Last edited by emucentral at 2009-3-22 08:55 PM ]
"他不是救星, 他是一个非常淘气男孩" - Monty Python

Use magic tools Report

You can't reply post until you log in Log in | register

BACK TO THE TOP
Contact us:Tel: (86)010-84883548, Email: blog@chinadaily.com.cn
Blog announcement:| We reserve the right, and you authorize us, to use content, including words, photos and videos, which you provide to our blog
platform, for non-profit purposes on China Daily media, comprising newspaper, website, iPad and other social media accounts.