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Bullying: what is it?(e-c)practice [Copy link] 中文

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Bullying: what is it?
欺负:什么是欺负?

Types of bullying, bullying tactics, how targets are selected, the difference between bullying and harassment
An answer to the question "Why me?"
欺负的类型,欺负的策略,如何选择目标, 欺负和骚扰的区别,给”为什么是我?”问题一个答案

What is bullying?

什么是欺负?


Bullying is persistent unwelcome behaviour, mostly using unwarranted or invalid criticism, nit-picking, fault-finding, also exclusion, isolation, being singled out and treated differently, being shouted at, humiliated, excessive monitoring, having verbal and written warnings imposed, and much more. In the workplace, bullying usually focuses on distorted or fabricated allegations of underperformance. Click here for definitions of workplace bullying.

  欺负是一种大部分时候使用无根据的,不成立的批评,吹毛求疵,挑错,以及排外,孤立,选出来不同对待的,被大叫,被侮辱,过度监视,施加口头和书面警告,以及更多其它方式进行持续的,不受欢迎的行为。在职场上,欺负则会往往集中在于歪曲了的或者捏造的不令人满意的表现断言上。点击此处获得职场欺负的定义。



Why do people bully?
为什么人们会欺负人?


The purpose of bullying is to hide inadequacy. Bullying has nothing to do with managing etc; good managers manage, bad managers bully. Management is managing; bullying is not managing. Therefore, anyone who chooses to bully is admitting their inadequacy, and the extent to which a person bullies is a measure of their inadequacy. Bullies project their inadequacy on to others:

  欺负的目的是要把无能隐藏起来。 欺负和管理等等都毫不相干;好的管理人是去管理,坏的管理人欺负。管理是就去管:欺负不是管理。因此任何选择去欺负的人都是在承认自己的无能。欺负人的程度可以用来衡量能力不足的程度。欺负者把自己的能力不足看成别人的能力不足的原因是:

    a) to avoid facing up to their inadequacy and doing something about it;

    为了回避自己的能力不足,回避采取措施。

    b) to avoid accepting responsibility for their behaviour and the effect it has on others, and,

    为了回避对他们的行为,及行为对别人带来后果负责。以及

    c) to reduce their fear of being seen for what they are, namely a weak, inadequate and often incompetent individuals, and,

    为了减少别人眼里看来是自己是什么样的人感到的恐惧,即:脆弱、能力不足,往往不能胜任的一个人.以及

    d) to divert attention away from their inadequacy - in an insecure or badly-managed workplace, this is how inadequate, incompetent and aggressive employees keep their jobs.

    为引开人们对自己能力不足上的视线--在一个不安全,管理差的工作场所,这成为那些能力不够,又好斗的员工们保住他们工作的方法。

Bullying is an inefficient way of working, resulting in disenchantment, demoralisation, demotivation, disaffection, and alienation. Bullies run dysfunctional and inefficient organisations; staff turnover and sickness absence are high whilst morale, productivity and profitability are low. Prosperity is illusory and such organizations are a bad long-term investment. Projection and denial are hallmarks of the serial bully.

  欺负行为是一种没效的工作方法,会导致。。去“士气”化,去“工作动力”化,不满和疏远产生。员工更换率和病假高居不下,而士气,生产力和收益性却是低迷。 繁荣是成为了幻觉的东西,这样的组织长期来讲是一个坏投资。。。。。和。否认。是连环欺负人的标记。

Bullying is present behind all forms of harassment, discrimination, prejudice, abuse, persecution, conflict and violence. When the bullying has a focus (eg race or gender) it is expressed as racial prejudice or harassment, or sexual discrimination and harassment, and so on. When the bullying lacks a focus (or the bully is aware of the Sex Discrimination Act or the Race Relations Act), it comes out as pure bullying; this is an opportunity to understand the behaviours which underlie almost all reprehensible behavior. I believe bullying is the single most important social issue of today.

  欺负行为被排在所有形式的骚扰、歧视、偏见、虐待、迫害、冲突和暴力之后。当欺负行为中有一个焦点,那么它便被体现为种族歧视和种族骚扰,或性别歧视和性别骚扰,等等。当欺负行为缺乏一个焦点(或者欺负者意识到了性歧视法案或种族关系法案),那么它就是一种纯粹的欺负行为:这是一个了解那些潜伏在几乎所有该受到谴责的行为之下的机会。 我相信,欺负行为是当今一个最为重要的单一社会问题。


Bullying...
欺负

is a form of abuse, and bullies - and unenlightened employers - often go to great lengths to keep their targets quiet, using threats of disciplinary action, dismissal, and gagging clauses. What bullies fear most is exposure of their inadequacy and being called publicly to account for their behavior and its consequences. This makes sense when you remember that the purpose of bullying is to hide inadequacy, and people who bully to hide their inadequacy are often incompetent.


  是一种虐待形式,而欺负人--以及不文明的雇主--往往会大加努力地采用解雇,纪律处分,限制条款,来尽很大努力让他们的目标保持沉默。

  另欺负人最害怕的是他们的不足被曝光,被当众指出对来要对他们的行为和结果负责。 你要记得,欺负的目的就是为了隐藏不足,这样的话,事情就就变得合情合理了。

  那些往往以隐藏不足而去欺负的人往往是不足的。


A bully is a person who
  一名欺负人:

    * has never learnt to accept responsibility for their behaviour
    * 从没学过对他们的行为负责。
    * wants to enjoy the benefits of living in the adult world, but who is unable and unwilling to accept the responsibilities that are a prerequisite for being part of the adult world.
    * 想要享受成人世界的好处,但是却不能且不愿意承担起成人世界里做为是前提的那些责任。
    * abdicates and denies responsibility for their behaviour and its consequences (abdication and denial are common features of bullying)
    * 放弃并否认他们的行为和后果责任。(欺负行为的普遍特征是放弃和否认)
    * is unable and unwilling to recognise the effect of their behaviour on others
    * 不能或不愿意承认自己的行为会对别人产生的影响。
    * does not want to know of any other way of behaving
    * 不愿意知道任何其它的行事方式。
    * is unwilling to recognise that there could be better ways of behaving.
    * 不愿意承认有更好的行事方式。


Bullying is obsessive and compulsive; the serial bully has to have someone to bully and appears to be unable to survive without a current target.

  欺负是具有强迫性和强制性:”连环欺负人“要有一让自己来欺负的人,似乎要是目前没有目标就不能活。

Despite the facade that such people put up, bullies have low self-confidence and low self-esteem, and thus feel insecure. Low self-esteem is a factor highlighted by all studies of bullying. Because such people are inadequate and unable to fulfil the duties and obligations of their position (but have no hesitation in accepting salary), they fear being revealed. This fear of exposure often borders on paranoia.

  即使这样的人给自己撑出了一个表面形象,不过欺负者们还是低自信和低自尊,因此会感到不安全。低自尊是在所有关欺负行为研究当中都会突出提到一个因素。因为此类人群是能力不足的,并不能够胜任他们岗位的职责和义务(但是却在拿薪水方面却是毫不犹豫)。他们害怕会被暴露出来。被暴露的恐惧往往是趋于到偏执狂的程度。

Bullies are seething with resentment, bitterness, hatred and anger, and often have wide-ranging prejudices as a vehicle for dumping their anger onto others. Bullies are driven by jealousy and envy. Rejection (which cannot be assuaged) is another powerful motivator of bullying.

  欺负者们浑身冒着忿怒、凄苦、仇恨和气愤,并往往会把广泛偏见做为他们把自己的愤怒发泄到其他人身上的媒介。 欺负者受到的是妒忌和羡慕的驱使。 (不能缓和的)拒绝是另一个欺负行为的有力动因。

Bullies are people who have not learned the lesson of consequences, ie that if they behave well there are good consequences (reward), but if they behave badly there are bad consequences (restriction, sanction, punishment, etc). Since childhood, bullies have learnt that they can avoid the unpleasant consequences of bad behaviour through the instinctive response of denial, blame, and feigning victimhood.

   欺负者是那些还没从后果那学到东西的人们。例如,他们不知道表现的好就会有好的结果(奖赏),但是如果他们表现不好就会有坏后果(约束,自裁,惩罚,等等)。自从儿童时期开始,欺负者们学到的是他们能够通过本能地做出否认,指责及假成受害者的反应来逃避不好的、由坏行为带来的后果。



How to spot a bully in your workplace
如何在工作场所看出一位欺负者

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Post time 2007-9-9 19:37:26 |Display all floors

my try :)

How to spot a bully in your workplace
如何在你的职场识别谁是欺负者

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Post time 2007-9-9 20:35:30 |Display all floors
How to spot a bully in your workplace

如何在工作场所看出一位欺负者


If you have a serial bully on the staff they will reveal themselves by their department showing excessive rates of

当在工作人员中出现了一名”连环“欺负者,那么他们将会以所在部门下面这些具有过高的数率而自我暴露出来:

    * staff turnover
    * 人员流动率
    * sickness absence
    * 因病缺勤率
    * stress breakdowns
    * 压力崩溃率
    * deaths in service
    * 工作死亡率
    * ill-health retirements
    * 因病退休
    * early retirements
    * 早退率
    * uses of disciplinary procedures
    * 纪律规定使用率
    * grievances initiated
    * 不满率
    * suspensions
    * 停职率
    * dismissals
    * 解雇率
    * uses of private security firms to snoop on employees
    * 利用私人安全公司来调查员工率
    * litigation including employment tribunals or legal action against employees
    * 包括雇佣官司或针对员工的法律行为诉讼率


Types of bullying
种种欺负类型


Pressure bullying or unwitting bullying is where the stress of the moment causes behaviour to deteriorate; the person becomes short-tempered, irritable and may shout or swear at others. Everybody does this from time to time, but when the pressure is removed, behaviour returns to normal, the person recognises the inappropriateness of their behaviour, makes amends, and may apologise, and - crucially - learns from the experience so that next time the situation arises they are better able to deal with it. This is "normal" behaviour and I do not include pressure bullying in my definition of workplace bullying.


  压力欺负或无意识欺负  是指当前的压力引起行为上变坏;人变得暴躁,易生气,可能会朝着其他人大叫或咒骂。每个人都时不时都经历过,但是当压力消除之后,行为举止会返回到正常状态,人们会识别出了在他们行为中的不正确性,并进行改过自新,还可能会道歉,而且--至关重要的是--会汲取经验,从而在下次情况出现的时候能够更好的对付它。这是“正常”的行为,我不会把压力欺负行为包括在我对“职场欺负”的定义当中。


Organisational bullying is a combination of pressure bullying and corporate bullying, and occurs when an organisation struggles to adapt to changing markets, reduced income, cuts in budgets, imposed expectations, and other external pressures.


  组织欺负  是指对压力欺负和公司欺负上的一个结合,并当在某个组织针对变化的市场、降低的收入、预算裁剪、被加以的期望值及其它外部压力来做出适应的努力时出现。


Corporate bullying is where the employer abuses employees with impunity knowing that the law is weak and jobs are scarce, eg:

公司欺负  是指因为雇主知道法律力量很弱,工作很少的这些情况,而可以不受惩罚来对员工进行虐待,例如:

        * coercing employees to work 60/70/80 weeks on a regular basis then making life hell for (or dismissing) anyone who objects
        * 会强迫员工们经常性地每周工作60/70/80小时,让任何的反对者的生活痛苦不堪(或者解雇)
        * dismissing anyone who looks like having a stress breakdown as it's cheaper (in the UK) to pay the costs of unfair dismissal at Employment Tribunal (eg £50K maximum, but awards are usually paltry) than risk facing a personal injury claim for stress breakdown (eg £175K as in the John Walker case)
        * 会解雇任何一位看上去有压力崩溃的人。因为(在英国)在雇用法庭上对不公正解雇付出的成本费用(例如,最高为5万英镑,但是,赔偿金往往是微不足道的)要比面临来自个人对精神压力崩溃的指控的风险要便宜(例如在John Walker的案件里的17.5万英镑)
        * introduces "absence management" to deny employees annual or sick leave to which they are genuinely entitled
        * 会引入”缺乏管理“机制来拒绝让员工修他们应得的年假或病假。
        * regularly snoops and spies on employees, eg by listening in to telephone conversations, using the mystery shopper, contacting customers behind employees backs and asking leading questions, conducting covert video surveillance (perhaps by fellow employees), sending personnel officers or private investigators to an employee's home to interrogate the employees whilst on sick leave, threatening employees with interrogation the moment they return from sick leave, etc.
        * 会经常地对员工进行调查和侦察,例如,偷听电话对话,采用神秘购物者、背着员工来联系顾客,以及实行偷拍监视(也许是利用同事员工),在(员工)请病假的时候,派人力部门人员或私人调查员到员工的家中来对员工进行询问,一旦病假结束返回工作,便以询问来来威胁员工。
        * deems any employee suffering from stress as weak and inadequate whilst aggressively ignoring and denying the cause of stress (bad management and bullying)
        * 会把任何处于精神压力折磨下的员工看作是软弱,无能,同时,并对引起精神压力的原因,硬是去不予理会,或予以否认(坏的管理和欺负行为)
        * "encourages" employees (with promises of promotion and/or threats of disciplinary action) to fabricate complaints about their colleagues
        * ”鼓励“员工(做出提升与/或纪律行为的承诺)来捏造关于对他们同事的投诉。
        * employees are "encouraged" to give up full-time permanent positions in favour of short-term contracts; anyone who resists has their life made hell
        * 员工被“鼓励”放弃永久的全职职位,而接受短期劳工合同;抵制者将让他们的生活叫苦连天。

Institutional bullying is similar to corporate bullying and arises when bullying becomes entrenched and accepted as part of the culture. People are moved, long-existing contracts are replaced with new short-term contracts on less favourable terms with the accompanying threat of "agree to this or else", workloads are increased, work schedules are changed, roles are changed, career progression paths are blocked or terminated, etc - and all of this is without consultation.

   制度欺负   和公司欺负相似,当欺负行为已经根深蒂固并成为文化中的一部份的时候出现。人们进行调动,长期合同被被新的不。条款,伴随”同意否则拉倒“的威胁的短期合同所取代。工作量增加,工作日程安排变动,角色改变,职业前进道路被阻或被终止,等等--而所有这些都是没有经过商议。


Client bullying is where employees are bullied by those they serve, eg teachers are bullied (and often assaulted) by pupils and their parents, nurses are bullied by patients and their relatives, social workers are bullied by their clients, and shop/bank/building society staff are bullied by customers. Often the client is claiming their perceived right (eg to better service) in an abusive,  derogatory and often physically violent manner. Client bullying can also be employees bullying their clients.

  客户欺负  是指遭到那些他们所服务人欺负。例如:老师被小学生或他们的家长欺负(还会经常地受到攻击),护士被病人和他们的亲戚们欺负,社会服务工作者被他们的客户欺负,商店/银行/建筑行业的人员被顾客欺负。往往都是顾客是以一个虐待的,贬损的,经常带着肢体暴力的行为方式来阐述自己的可感知权利(如:获得更好的服务)客户欺负还可指员工欺负他们的顾客。



Serial bullying is where the source of all dysfunction can be traced to one individual, who picks on one employee after another and destroys them. This is the most common type of bullying I come across; most of this web site is devoted to describing and defining the serial bully, who exhibits the behavioural characteristics of a socialised psychopath. Most people know at least one person in their life with the profile of the serial bully; most people do not recognise this person as a socialised psychopath, or sociopath. I estimate one person in thirty is either  a physically-violent psychopath who commits criminal acts, or an antisocial whose behaviour is antisocial, or a sociopath who commits mostly non-arrestable offences. For an in-depth insight into serial bullying, click here.


  连环欺负  是指全部的“机能故障”都可以回溯到一个人头上。这个人会一个接一个选出员工,并将他们"击毁”。 这是我所遇见最为普遍的欺负形式;这个网站的大部分内容都旨在对连环欺负行为进行描述和定义,它所表现出的是一种社会化的心理变态时候的行为特点,我们大多数人当中在生活里至少认识有一位拥有此类连环欺负者的特征;我们大多数人不会把这个人看作是社会化的心理变态者或反社会者。 根据我的估计,在三十个人里面有一个名或者是在身体暴力上的会产生犯罪行为的心理变态者,或者是行为上反对社会的反社会者,或者是一位进行几乎不可能抓住罪名的行为的反社会病态人格。要深入了解连环欺负,请点击这里。

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Secondary bullying is mostly unwitting bullying which people start exhibiting when there's a serial bully in the department. The pressure of trying to deal with a dysfunctional, divisive and aggressive serial bully causes everyone's behaviour to decline.


  二级欺负  几乎和无意识欺负相同,都是当部门出现了一个连环欺负者时,人们就开始会做出的这样的表现。 要对付一个不正常、分裂性的、侵犯的连环欺负者会让每个人的行为层次下降。


Pair bullying is a serial bully with a colleague. Often one does the talking whilst the other watches and listens. Usually it's the quiet one you need to watch. Usually they are of opposite gender and frequently there's an affair going on.


  配对欺负  是指一个连环欺负者加上一个同伴。往往, 一个说,而另一个人来注视、倾听。 通常,你要注意的是那个安静的人。通常,他们具有的是相反的性格,并有一段绯闻。


Gang bullying is a serial bully with colleagues. Gangs can occur anywhere, but flourish in corporate bullying climates. If the bully is an extrovert, they are likely to be leading from the front; they may also be a shouter and screamer, and thus easily identifiable (and recordable on tape and video-able). If the bully is an introvert, that person will be in the background initiating the mayhem but probably not taking an active part, and may thus be harder to identify. A common tactic of this type of bully is to tell everybody a different story - usually about what others are alleged to have said about that person - and encourage each person to think they are the only one with the correct story. Introvert bullies are the most dangerous bullies.


  团伙欺负  是指一个连环欺负者加上多个同伴。任何地方都会出现团伙,但是在一个具有公司欺负环境下,则会繁荣起来。如果欺负者是一个性格外向者,他们就可能会在阵前指挥;

  他们也许会是大声叫嚷,尖叫,因此容易辨识出来(还可以录在磁带上、录像带上)。如果欺负者是一个内向者,那个人将会在幕后挑起伤害,但是可能并不会积极参与,因此要更难辨识。这个类型的欺负者的惯用手法是告诉每个人不同的故事--通常是告诉那个人别人说了什么--并鼓励每个人认为他们听到的是准确的故事。内向的欺负者是最危险的欺负者。


Half the people in the gang are happy for the opportunity to behave badly, they gain gratification from the feeling of power and control, and enjoy the patronage, protection and reward from the serial bully. The other half of the gang are coerced into joining in, usually through fear of being the next target if they don't. If anything backfires, one of these coercees will be the scapegoat and sacrificial lamb on whom enraged targets will be encouraged to vent their anger. The serial bully watches from a safe distance. Serial bullies gain a great deal of gratification from encouraging and watching others engage in conflict, especially those who might otherwise pool negative information about them.
Gang bullying or group bullying is often called mobbing and usually involves scapegoating and victimisation.


  在这样的团伙中一半对有做坏事的机会表示快乐,他们从权利和控制当中获得的是满足感,并喜欢从连环欺负者给于的恩惠,保护和奖励。另一半是被迫加入的,通常是如果不,那么就会成为下一个(被欺负)目标。如果出了任何的问题,其中一个被迫加入的人就会成为替罪羊,成为那些被惹恼的被欺负者被鼓励来发泄他们愤怒的牺牲品。连环欺负者会在一个安全的地方观望。连环欺负者从鼓励和看着其他人卷入冲突,尤其是那些可能不然就会给他打坏报告的人那里,获得的是极大的满足感。团伙欺负或群体欺负通常被称为围攻,并一般都牵涉到替罪羊和牺牲品。

Vicarious bullying is where two parties are encouraged to engage in adversarial interaction or conflict. Similar to gang bullying, although the bully may or may not be directly connected with either of the two parties. One party becomes the bully's instrument of harassment and is deceived and manipulated into bullying the other party. An example of vicarious bullying is where the serial bully creates conflict between employer and employee, participating occasionally to stoke the conflict, but rarely taking an active part in the conflict themselves.


  代理欺负  是指当两方在鼓动下加入到不好的交互当中或冲突当中。它和团伙欺负类似,尽管这种类型欺负可能或可能不会直接和双方的任何一方有关系。一方成为了欺负者的的骚扰工具,还并欺骗,被操纵来欺负另一方。一个代理欺负的例子;当连环欺负者制造了雇主和雇员的冲突,并时不时的参与到给冲突添柴,但是极少自己积极加入到冲突当中。


Regulation bullying is where a serial bully forces their target to comply with rules, regulations, procedures or laws regardless of their appropriateness, applicability or necessity.

  规定欺负  是指当连环欺负者强迫他们的目标来服从条例,规定,步骤,法规,而不论是否法规适合性、适用性还是必要性是否存在。


Legal bullying - the bringing of a vexatious legal action to control and punish a person - is one of the nastiest forms of bullying.
  法律欺负  --带来伤脑筋的法律行动从此来控制和惩罚一个人--是欺负的一种最为肮脏的形式。


Residual bullying is the bullying of all kinds that continues after the serial bully has left. Like recruits like and like promotes like, therefore the serial bully bequeaths a dysfunctional environment to those who are left. This can last for years.

  残留欺负  是指在所有这些类型的欺负在连环欺负者离开之后继续存在。 例如:什么样的人雇用什么样的人,什么样的人晋升什么样的人,因此。连环欺负者会将把一个不正常机能的环境留给留下的人们,而这会持续许多年。


Cyber bullying is the misuse of email systems or Internet forums etc for sending aggressive flame mails. Serial bullies have few communication skills (and often none), thus the impersonal nature of email makes it an ideal tool for causing conflict. Sometimes called cyberstalking.


  网络欺负  是指滥用电子邮件或互联网论坛,等等,发送出就有挑衅的恐吓邮件。连环欺负者具有很少的沟通能力(往往是没有),因此电子邮件所具有的非个人色彩性质让它成为了引起冲突的理想工具。有时候它被称之为网络纠缠。


In environments where bullying is the norm, most people will eventually either become bullies or become targets. There are few bystanders, as most people will eventually be sucked in. It's about survival: you either adopt bullying tactics yourself and thus survive by not becoming a target, or you stand up against bullying and refuse to join in, in which case you are bullied, harassed, victimized and scapegoated until your health is so severely impaired that you have a stress breakdown (this is a psychiatric injury, not a mental illness - see health page for details on stress, or the PTSD page for details on psychiatric injury), take ill-health retirement, leave, find yourself unexpectedly selected for redundancy, or are unfairly dismissed.


在那些欺负行成为了习惯的环境下,大部分人最终要么成为了欺负者,要么成为被欺负的目标。 很少有旁观者存在,因为大部分的人们会最终被“卷入其中”

这和生存有关:要么你自己来采纳欺负他人的策略,也从而不成为被欺负的目标而生存下来,要么你站出来反抗欺负行为,拒绝”志同道合“,这样的话,你会被欺负、被骚扰;在那样的情况下,成为一名受害者、替罪羊,直到最后你的健康严重被受损而导致精神崩溃(这是一种精神的伤势,而不是精神疾病,关于精神压力详细请参见的健康网页,或者关于精神伤害详情参见PTSD网页)从而就告病退休,离开,发现出乎意料地被选中裁员,或者不公平地被开除。


Hierarchical bullying, peer bullying, upward bullying

上下级欺负、同辈欺负、向上欺负



The majority of cases of workplace bullying reported to the UK National Workplace Bullying Advice Line and Bully OnLine involve an individual being bullied by their manager, and these account for around 75% of cases. Around a quarter of cases involve bullying and harassment by peers (often with the collusion of a manager either by proactive involvement or by the manager refusing to take action). A small number of cases (around 1-2%) involve the bullying of a manager by a subordinate. Serial bullies like to tap into hierarchical power, but they also generate their own power by simply choosing to bully with impunity and justifying or denying their behaviour with rationalisation, manipulation, deception or lying.

In a case of bullying of a manager by a subordinate, it's my view that as bullying is a form of violence (at the psychological and emotional lever rather than the physical) it's the responsibility of the employer, not the individual manager, to deal with violence at work.


  被举报到了英国全国职场欺负建议热线,及欺负在线的职场欺负的主要案例都是关于个人被管理者欺负,这占所有欺负事件的大约75%。大约四分之一和同辈欺负和骚扰有关(往往是。。或者。。拒绝做出行为)。少数的(大约1%左右)包括经理被下属欺负。连环欺负者喜欢利用到上下级的权利,但是他们还会选择不受惩罚的去欺负来给自己赋予权利,并用辩解,耍手段,欺骗或撒谎的方式来为自己行为找理由或对行为矢口的否认。在管理者被下属欺负的例子里,我的观点是既然欺负是一种暴力行为(从心理和感情层次上,不是身体层次上)所以,是责任是在雇主而不是管理者来处理工作中的这种暴力。


What is bullying?

什么是欺负?

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What is bullying?

什么是欺负?



People who are bullied find that they are:

被欺负的人们发现自己:

    * constantly criticised and subjected to destructive criticism (often euphemistically called constructive criticism, which is an oxymoron) - explanations and proof of achievement are ridiculed, overruled, dismissed or ignored
    * 不断地被批评,受到毁灭性的批评(往往却委婉地被称之为建设性批评,这是一种矛盾修饰法)--成就上的解释和证据被拿来取笑、被驳回、被打发或被忽略。
    * forever subject to nit-picking and trivial fault-finding (the triviality is the giveaway)
    * 永远成为被找茬和被挑小毛病的主体。(琐碎是透露出的征兆)
    * undermined, especially in front of others; false concerns are raised, or doubts are expressed over a person's performance or standard of work - however, the doubts lack substantive and quantifiable evidence, for they are only the bully's unreliable opinion and are for control, not performance enhancement
    * 被削弱,尤其是当着别人的面前; 出现了假关心,或者对一个人的别人表现或工作水准表现出了怀疑-不过,这样的种种怀疑所缺乏的是实质上的和可计量的证据,因为那些只是欺负者自己不可靠的观点,为的是获得控制,而不是增强表现。
    * overruled, ignored, sidelined, marginalised, ostracised
    * 被驳回,忽视,被叫”靠边站“,被边缘化,被排除
    * isolated and excluded from what's happening (this makes people more vulnerable and easier to control and subjugate)
    * 从正在发生的事情当中被孤立和排除(这让人们变得更加脆弱,更容易来进行控制和征服)
    * singled out and treated differently (for example everyone else can have long lunch breaks but if they are one minute late it's a disciplinary offence)
    * 被单独提出,别加以不同的对待(例如,别人每个人都可以获得长时间的午间休息,但是如果自己要完了一分钟,就成了违反纪律)
    * belittled, degraded, demeaned, ridiculed, patronised, subject to disparaging remarks
    * 被小看、被降低品格,被贬低,被嘲笑,被用“居高临下”的口气谈话,受到鄙视的评论。
    * regularly the target of offensive language, personal remarks, or inappropriate bad language
    * 经常地成为无礼语言,个人评论或不当坏语言的目标。
    * the target of unwanted sexual behaviour
    * 成为自己不愿意进行性行为的目标
    * threatened, shouted at and humiliated, especially in front of others
    * 被威胁,被叫喊,被侮辱,尤其当着许多他人面前。
    * taunted and teased where the intention is to embarrass and humiliate
    * 被嘲弄,被取笑,其中目的是要使人难看,羞辱别人。
    * set unrealistic goals and deadlines which are unachievable or which are changed without notice or reason or whenever they get near achieving them
    * 被设定了不切肤实际的目标,截止日期,而这些是不可达到的,或者,在人们快要达到目标的时候,在没有通知或没有理由的情况下,发生变动。
    * denied information or knowledge necessary for undertaking work and achieving objectives
    * 被拒绝给于要开展工作或实现目标的信息或知识。
    * starved of resources, sometimes whilst others often receive more than they need
    * 有时候会极度需要获得资源,可其它人经常获得的资源要比自己的更多。
    * denied support by their manager and thus find themselves working in a management vacuum
    * 被管理者拒绝予以支持,从而发现自己工作在一个管理真空当中。
    * either overloaded with work (this keeps people busy [with no time to tackle bullying] and makes it harder to achieve targets) or have all their work taken away (which is sometimes replaced with inappropriate menial jobs, eg photocopying, filing, making coffee)
    * 要么就是工作担子过重(这让人们要忙于工作【无暇来处理欺负行为】,从而使得达到目标变得更难)或者把他们的工作都拿走(有时候,则是被不适合的平庸工作取代,例如:复印,档案,煮咖啡)
    * have their responsibility increased but their authority removed
    * 给了他们更多的责任,但却移调了权利。
    * have their work plagiarised, stolen and copied - the bully then presents their target's work (eg to senior management) as their own
    * 工作被剽窃,盗取,拷贝--欺负者随后把他们的目标(被欺负者)的工作做为自己的来提交(例如:提交给高层管理)
    * are given the silent treatment: the bully refuses to communicate and avoids eye contact (always an indicator of an abusive relationship); often instructions are received only via email, memos, or a succession of yellow stickies or post-it notes
    * 被给于“安静对待法”:欺负者拒绝来交流,避免目光接触(通常是一段虐待关系的征兆);往往(欺负者)发出的指令只能是通过电子邮件,网络,或一批黄色的贴纸,粘贴记录来受到。
    * subject to excessive monitoring, supervision, micro-management, recording, snooping etc
    * 要受到过度的监视,监督,微观管理,录音,偷听。等等。
    * the subject of written complaints by other members of staff (most of whom have been coerced into fabricating allegations - the complaints are trivial, often bizarre ["He looked at me in a funny way"] and often bear striking similarity to each other, suggesting a common origin)
    * 成为其他员工书面投诉的对象(大多数人是被强迫捏造事实--那些抱怨是微不足道的,往往是怪异的[他用一种可笑的方式看着我],通常这些投诉彼此极其相似,暗示出之同一源头)。
    * forced to work long hours, often without remuneration and under threat of dismissal
    * 被逼迫长时间工作,往往没有报酬,并以解雇为威胁。
    * find requests for leave have unacceptable and unnecessary conditions attached, sometimes overturning previous approval. especially if the person has taken action to address bullying in the meantime
    * 发现(自己提出的)对离职请求当中附带了不可接受的和不必要的条件,有时候会推翻以前的批准,尤其当那个人(被欺负者)已经在同时采取解决欺负的行动。
    * denied annual leave, sickness leave, or - especially - compassionate leave
    * 被拒绝给于年休,病假或--甚至是-体恤休假
    * when on leave, are harassed by calls at home or on holiday, often at unsocial hours
    * 当在休假时,被打到家或度假的电话骚扰,往往是出现在非交际的时间。
    * receive unpleasant or threatening calls or are harassed with intimidating memos, notes or emails with no verbal communication, immediately prior to weekends and holidays (eg 4pm Friday or Christmas Eve - often these are hand-delivered)
    * 接到不愉快或者是威胁性的电话,或者被威吓内容的备忘录,笔记或电子邮件,在没有口头交流的情况下,在周末和节假日即将开始前进行的骚扰(例如周五4点,或者是平安夜-往往它们是通过亲手交递)
    * do not have a clear job description, or have one that is exceedingly long or vague; the bully often deliberately makes the person's role unclear
    * 没有一个明确的工作描述,或者有的话,则是过度冗长或模糊;欺负者往往有意会让(目标者)那个人的角色不清晰。
    * are invited to "informal" meetings which turn out to be disciplinary hearings
    * 被邀请参加”非正式“会议,而结果是纪律聆讯
    * are denied representation at meetings, often under threat of further disciplinary action; sometimes the bully abuses their position of power to exclude any representative who is competent to deal with bullying
    * 在会议上被拒绝让代表出席,往往在威胁进一步的纪律行动;有时候,欺负者滥用权利来把任何有能力应对欺负的任何代表排除在外。
    * encouraged to feel guilty, and to believe they're always the one at fault
    * 被鼓励去感到罪恶感,任何时候都被鼓励都是自己一人的错。
    * subjected to unwarranted and unjustified verbal or written warnings
    * 受到毫无道理来自语言和书面上的警告。
    * facing unjustified disciplinary action on trivial or specious or false charges
    * 为了琐事、似是而非、或陷害而面临无道理的纪律行动。
    * facing dismissal on fabricated charges or flimsy excuses, often using a trivial incident from months or years previously
    * 由于诬告和无力的借口而面临被解雇,往往会利用几月或几年前一个件小事。
    * coerced into reluctant resignation, enforced redundancy, early or ill-health retirement
    * 被强迫不情愿地递交辞职,强制性实行裁员,早退或病退
    * denial of the right to earn your livelihood including preventing you getting another job, usually with a bad or misleading reference
    * 拒绝你谋生的权利,包括阻止你获得另一份工作,通常都是带着一个坏的、错误导向的参考意见。


A favourite tactic of bullies which helps them evade detection is to undertake a "reorganisation" at regular intervals. This has several advantages:

受欺负者们喜爱的,用来帮助他们逃避察觉的策略是以有规律时间间隔“重组”。这有许多好处:

    * anyone whose face doesn't fit can be organised out through downsizing (redundancy) or transfer
    * 任何认为不合适的面孔可能通过减员(下岗)或调离职位来除去。
    * ditto anyone who challenges the reorganisation
    * 同样可以除去任何对存储挑战质疑的人。
    * ditto, their job can be "regraded" or "redefined" to the person's disadvantage
    * 同样,他们的工作能被“重新打分”或“重新定义”对那个人不利。
    * each reorganisation is a smokescreen for the bully's dysfunctional behaviour - everyone is so busy coping with the reorganisation (chaos) that the bully's behaviour goes unnoticed
    * 每次的重组对欺负者的不正常行为来说都是一次“烟雾弹”--每个人忙着去应对重组(混乱),从而欺负者的行为可以变得悄声无息。
    * the bully can always claim to be reorganising in the name of "efficiency" and therefore be perceived by those above as a strong manager
    * 欺负者总是能以 ”高效率”的名义来重组,因此而被上面的人称之为强干的经理人。

However, there is never any cost-benefit justification to the reorganisation - no figures before and no figures after to prove the reorganisation has brought benefits.

可是,对这样的重组,从成本收益来讲,没有任何的道理--(重组)之前和(重组)之后都没有数据证明了重组是带来了好处。

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Why me?

为什么是我?

There are many reasons how and why bullies target others, and the reasons are consistent between cases. There are many myths and stereotypes such as "victims are weak" which I deconstruct on my myths page. Bullying often repeats because the reasons that bullies target their victims don't change, hence this section also answers the questions "Why do I keep getting bullied" and "Why do bullies continue to bully me?".

欺负者对他人如何地,及为什么要去瞄准他人(欺负)上存在着许多个理由。在一个个实例当中,这些理由是具有一贯性的。有着许多关于“受害者人是弱者”这样的误解和老一套形象存在。在我“误解网页”上进行了否定。欺负行为往往会重复,因为欺负者瞄准他们受害人的理由是未曾改变过。因此这一部分里还要来回答“为什么我总是被人欺负”,以及“为什么欺负者不断地欺负我”的问题。


1) How do bullies select their targets?

欺负者如何选择他们的目标?



The bully selects their target using the following criteria:

欺负者选取目标是采用了一下的标准:

    * bullies are predatory and opportunistic - you just happen to be in the wrong place at the wrong time; this is always the main reason - investigation will reveal a string of predecessors, and you will have a string of successors

欺负者具有掠夺性和投机取巧性---你(受欺负者)只不过是在一个错误的时间出现在了一个错误的地点;这往往都是主要原因--进行调查将会揭示有一连串的“前者”(受害者),你之后也会有一连串的”后来“(受害者)

    * being good at your job, often excelling

你擅长工作,而且往往是出众的

    * being popular with people (colleagues, customers, clients, pupils, parents, patients, etc)

你受到人们的欢迎(同时,顾客,客户,小学生,父母,病人,等等)

    * more than anything else, the bully fears exposure of his/her inadequacy and incompetence; your presence, popularity and competence unknowingly and unwittingly fuel that fear

比任何都重要的是,欺负者恐怕暴露他的或能力不够及无能; 你的出现,欢迎程度,胜任都不自觉地、不知情地助长了(欺负者的)那种恐惧。

    * being the expert and the person to whom others come for advice, either personal or professional (ie you get more attention than the bully)

做为一位专家,人们都想你请教建议,要么是个人的或者是职业上的(例如,你获得了比欺负者更多的注意力)

    * having a well-defined set of values which you are unwilling to compromise

你具有一套定义明确的价值观,你不愿意让它们妥协

    * having a strong sense of integrity (bullies despise integrity, for they have none, and seem compelled to destroy anyone who has integrity)

你有强烈的正值感(欺负者轻视的东西是正值,因为他们自己一点也没有,并似乎感到了要来毁掉任何人正值感的迫切)

    * having at least one vulnerability that can be exploited

你至少有一个弱点能够被被“利用剥削”

    * being too old or too expensive (usually both)

你太老,或。。(往往都是两者)

    * refusing to join an established clique

拒绝加入一个已经确立的派系

    * showing independence of thought or deed

显示出了独立的思维和行为

    * refusing to become a corporate clone and drone

拒绝成为公司的一份克隆和游手好闲者。

Jealousy (of relationships and perceived exclusion therefrom) and envy (of talents, abilities, circumstances or possessions) are strong motivators of bullying.

羡慕(对关系,和由此感到的排外),嫉妒(对才华,能力,处境,及财务)这两者都是欺负行为的强大动因。


2) Events that trigger bullying

触发欺负的事件


Bullying starts after one of these events:

欺负往往在一下这些事件之后产生:

    * the previous target leaves
    * 前一名(受欺负)目标离去。
    * there's a reorganisation
    * 出现一次重组
    * a new manager is appointed
    * 指派了新的管理者
    * your performance unwittingly highlights, draws attention to, exposes or invites unfavourable comparison with the bully's lack of performance (the harder you work to address the bully's claims of underperformance, the more insecure and unstable the bully becomes)
    * 你的表现在自己不知情地情况下显著,吸引了注意力,暴露了或者引来了把它同欺负者的缺乏表现进行不利比较(你是越是努力来针对欺负者(对你)表现低的言论而进行工作,那么欺负者就感到越不安全,不稳定)。
    * you may have unwittingly become the focus of attention whereas before the bully was the centre of attention (this often occurs with female bullies) - most bullies are emotionally immature and thus crave attention
    * 你也许已经不知情地成为了人们的关注中心,而之前那个关注的中心是欺负者。(这往往在女性欺负者身上出现)--大部分欺负者感情上不成熟,因此渴望得到注意力。
    * obvious displays of affection, respect or trust from co-workers
    * 明显展示同事们对自己的热情,尊重或者信任。
    * refusing to obey an order which violates rules, regulations, procedures, or is illegal
    * 拒绝服从违反条例,规定,步骤或者违法的命令。
    * standing up for a colleague who is being bullied - this ensures you will be next; sometimes the bully drops their current target and turns their attention to you immediately
    * 为一名正在受欺负的同事拔刀相助--这个举动一定会让你成为下一个(受欺负者);有时候,欺负者会放下当前的目标,立即注意到你。
    * blowing the whistle on incompetence, malpractice, fraud, illegality, breaches of procedure, breaches of health & safety regulations etc
    * 对无能,渎职,欺诈,违法,违反过程,违反健康及安全条率等等进行高密。
    * undertaking trade union duties
    * 承担工会的职责
    * suffering illness or injury, whether work related or not
    * 有疾病或伤势,不论是否和工作相关
    * challenging the status quo, especially unwittingly
    * 对现状发出挑战,尤其是没有意识地
    * gaining recognition for your achievements, eg winning an award or being publicly recognised
    * 由于你的成绩而获得认可,例如:赢得一次奖励,或者公众被认可。
    * gaining promotion
    * 获得晋升

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3) Personal qualities that bullies find irresistible
让欺负者感到无法抵挡的个性品格


Targets of bullying usually have these qualities:
欺负行为的目标人往往会带有以下品格:

    * popularity (this stimulates jealousy in the less-than-popular bully)
    * 欢迎度(这会在不那么受欢迎的欺负者身上激发出妒忌)
    * competence (this stimulates envy in the less-than-competent bully)
    * 能力(这会在那些不那么胜任的欺负者身上激发出嫉妒)
    * intelligence and intellect
    * 智慧和理解力
    * honesty and integrity (which bullies despise)
    * 诚实、正值(这是欺负者们轻视的东西)
    * you're trustworthy, trusting, conscientious, loyal and dependable
    * 你值得人们信任、对人们你信任,本着良心、忠诚、可靠
    * a well-developed integrity which you're unwilling to compromise
    * 一个良好建立起的,不愿意妥协的正值
    * you're always willing to go that extra mile and expect others to do the same
    * 你总是愿意去进行多一份额外的努力,并希望其他人也同样。
    * successful, tenacious, determined, courageous, having fortitude
    * 成功,坚韧,坚决,勇气,坚毅
    * a sense of humour, including displays of quick-wittedness
    * 有幽默感,包括显示出思考敏捷。
    * imaginative, creative, innovative
    * 有想象力,有创造性,创新性
    * idealistic, optimistic, always working for improvement and betterment of self, family, the employer, and the world
    * 理想主义,乐观,往往努力提高和改善自己,家人,雇主及世界
    * ability to master new skills
    * 能学新技能的能力
    * ability to think long term and to see the bigger picture
    * 能从长远考虑,能看见大局。
    * sensitivity (this is a constellation of values to be cherished including empathy, concern for others, respect, tolerance etc)
    * 敏感(这是包括同情,关心他人,尊重,容忍等等一系列的要珍惜的价值)
    * slow to anger
    * 迟缓生气
    * helpful, always willing to share knowledge and experience
    * 对人们有帮助,往往乐意去分享知识和经验
    * giving and selfless
    * 赠与及无私
    * difficulty saying no
    * 很难说“不”
    * diligent, industrious
    * 勤奋刻苦
    * tolerant
    * 容忍
    * strong sense of honour
    * 强烈的荣誉感
    * irrepressible, wanting to tackle and correct injustice wherever you see it
    * 抑制不住,无论什么事后见到不公,总想去对付、纠正。
    * an inability to value oneself whilst attributing greater importance and validity to other people's opinions of oneself (eg through tests, exams, appraisals, manager's feedback, etc)
    * 不能评估自己价值,同时把自己的重要性和正确性更多的归结到别人对自己的看法上(例如,通过测验,考试,评估,经理反馈,等等)
    * low propensity to violence (ie you prefer to resolve conflict through dialogue rather than through violence or legal action)
    * 不喜爱暴力(例如,你更喜欢通过对话而不是暴力或法律行为来解决冲突)
    * a strong forgiving streak (which the bully exploits and manipulates to dissuade you from taking grievance and legal action)
    * 强烈的宽恕性格(这就是欺负者利用,并操纵来劝阻你进行任何表示不满和采取法律行为的地方)
    * a desire to always think well of others
    * 总愿意对别人向好处上想
    * being incorruptible, having high moral standards which you are unwilling to compromise
    * 清廉,有你不愿意妥协的高道德标准
    * being unwilling to lower standards
    * 不愿意降低标准
    * a strong well-defined set of values which you are unwilling to compromise or abandon
    * 强烈定义完美的一组你不愿意妥协或放弃的价值观念。
    * high expectations of those in authority and a dislike of incompetent people in positions of power who abuse power
    * 对当权者们有高期望,对那些在位置上滥用职权的无能者表示厌恶。
    * a tendency to self-deprecation, indecisiveness, deference and approval seeking
    * 有自我贬低,犹豫不决,顺从及寻求同意的倾向
    * low assertiveness
    * 低魄力
    * a need to feel valued
    * 有对被重视感觉的一个需要
    * quick to apologise when accused, even if not guilty (this is a useful technique for defusing an aggressive customer or potential road rage incident)
    * 当被指责的时候,迅速来道歉,即便自己是无辜的(这是平息一位挑衅的顾客或,潜在道路暴怒事件有用的一个方法)
    * perfectionism
    * 完美主义
    * higher-than-average levels of dependency, naivety and guilt
    * 高于平均水平的依赖性,天真烂漫,内疚
    * a strong sense of fair play and a desire to always be reasonable
    * 强烈的公平竞争感觉,希望总是要去是明里的
    * high coping skills under stress, especially when the injury to health becomes apparent
    * 在精神压力下的高克服能力,尤其当伤害对健康已经明显
    * a tendency to internalise anger rather than express it
       倾向将愤怒内化,而不是去表达它

The typical sequence of events is:
一连串典型的发生的事件是:

    * the target is selected using the criteria above, then bullied for months, perhaps years
    * 目标按上面的标准选定,然后开始进行数月,也许是数年的欺负
    * eventually, the target asserts their right not to be bullied, perhaps by filing a complaint with personnel
    * 最终,目标者维护说自己有不被欺负的权利,也许是通过向人事部门发一份投诉。
    * personnel interview the bully, who uses their Jekyll and Hyde nature, compulsive lying, and charm to tell the opposite story (charm has a motive - deception)
    * 人事部对欺负者进行谈话。而欺负者利用他们双重性格,强制性的撒谎,以及魅力来告诉一个相反的故事(魅力当中有一个动机-欺骗)
    * it's one word against another with no witnesses and no evidence, so personnel take the word of the senior employee - serial bullies excel at deception and evasion of accountability
    * 这是一对一的谈话,没有目击人,没有证据,因此人事部会采纳那位资深员工的话:--连环欺负者在欺骗和逃避责任上是出众的。
    * the personnel department are hoodwinked by the bully into getting rid of the target - serial bullies are adept at encouraging conflict between people who might otherwise pool negative information about them
    * 人事部门被欺负者忽悠下开除了那位目标人(被欺负者)--连环欺负者对于在不然会提供关于他们坏的消极信息的人们之间煽动矛盾一事上很是在行。
    * once the target is gone, there's a period of between 2-14 days, then a new target is selected and the process starts again (bullying is an obsessive compulsive behaviour and serial bullies seem unable to survive without a target on to whom they can project their inadequacy and incompetence whilst blaming them for the bully's own failings)
    * 一旦目标这没有,大约会有2-14天过后,随后会选出一个新的目标人,而这个过程又再次开始(欺负是一个强迫性、强制性的行为,而连环欺负者似乎是没有能让他们投射他们自己能力不够及无能、以及将他们自己的失败怪罪到那些人身上的目标就不能生存。

    * even if the employer realises that they might have sided with the wrong person in the past, they are unlikely to admit that because to do so may incur liability
    * 就算雇主们意识到了他们也许在过去是站错了边,他们也不可能会去承认,因为这么做的话要产生责任。
    * if legal action is taken, employers go to increasingly greater lengths to keep targets quiet, usually by offering a small out-of-court settlement with a comprehensive gagging clause
    * 如果采取了法律行为,雇主会不断尽力让目标人闭口不语,通常是给他们提供小额数目,带着全面压制的庭外和解。
    * employers are often more frightened of the bully than the target and will go to enormous lengths to avoid having to deal with bully (promotion for the bully is the most common outcome)
    * 雇主通常要比目标人更惧怕欺负者,并将会竭尽很大努力来避免去对付欺负者(最普遍的结果就是去给欺负者晋升)

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