Author: changabula

Chinese Role Models and Heroes [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2007-2-6 05:31:44 |Display all floors
Hu?Tu

Hu?Tu?was a famous Chinese physician during the Eastern Han and Three Kingdoms era. He was the first person to perform surgery with the aid of anesthesia, some 1600 years before the practice was adopted by Europeans. He did this by first feeding the patient with wine mixed with a herbal concoction before carrying out the operation. It is said he looked like "a saint who had passed the gates of this life", and was "a man with the complexion of a youth and a snowy beard".

One of the most respected physicians in China's history, he was also one of the first physicians to devise exercises to enhance health. He developed a series of exercises based on the movements of five animals (tiger, deer, bear, ape, and crane) known as wuqinxi, or "Frolics of The Five Animals." (五禽戲)

He was introduced to Sun Ce by Dong Xi. Hu?Tu?healed Sun Ce's general Zhou Tai who had suffered great injuries to rescue Sun Quan. He used drugs which healed Zhou Tai by the end of the month and was rewarded richly.

Hu?Tu?was later called upon to cure a chronic and excruciating pain in C醥 Cāo's head, which turned out to be a brain tumour. Hu?Tu?told C醥 Cāo that to cure him, he would have to open up his skull to remove the tumour. C醥 Cāo thought Hu?Tu?had the intention of killing him by opening his skull. This was due to his fear of surgeons after Ji Ping, a former royal surgeon, attempted to assassinate him as part of Dong Cheng's girdle plot. Hu?Tu?was jailed and ordered to death by C醥 Cāo. Legend has it that Hu?Tu?gave his medicine booklet, the Qīng N醤g Shū (青囊書), in which were recorded various ways to treat patients, to a prison officer before his execution; however, the wife of the prison officer burned the booklet out of fear of being implicated and only two pages of Hu?Tu?s works were left. This loss to Traditional Chinese Medicine was irreplaceable. There is also a set of 34 paravertebral acupuncture points named in his honor, the "Hu?Tu?Jia Ji." In some versions of Hu?Tu?s death, however, it was said that he died of illness and was filled with agony to his last moment at not being able to cure his own sickness even though he was a doctor.

Hu?Tu?s name is often used synonymously with "miracle worker doctor" (神醫) in China. A particularly skilled doctor is often called "Hu?Tu?Revived".

[ Last edited by changabula at 2007-5-18 05:45 PM ]
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Post time 2007-2-7 01:19:38 |Display all floors
Zhang Heng (78-139)

Zhang Heng  was a Chinese astronomer, geographer, and mathematician. During his adolescence, he was curious and eager to learn new things. Later he travelled to the ancient capital Chang'an, and Luo Yang to discuss matters and exchange opinions with famous scholars. At the age of 37, at the imperial court, he was responsible for observing astronomical phenomena, managing national documents and editing national history.

He was not only the author of the famous book on astronomy -- Lin Xian, he invented World's first armilary sphere made of bronze. Heng was the first person in China to construct a rotating celestial globe, believing that the world was round. He wrote about this in his work Hun-i chu where he describes his version of the universe as follows:-

"The sky is like a hen's egg, and is as round as a crossbow pellet; the Earth is like the yolk of the egg, lying alone at the centre. The sky is large and the Earth small."

In another work Lin Hsien, he describes the stars:-

"North and south of the equator there are 124 groups which are always brightly shining. 320 stars can be named. There are in all 2500, not including those which the sailors observe. Of the very small stars there are 11520."

His approximation of pi was the square root of 10 or approximately 3.162

He also created a primitive, but very fanciful seismograph. His earthquake detector was earlier than the one made by Europeans by 1700 years. Heng's device was in the shape of a cylinder with eight dragon heads around the top, each with a ball in its mouth. Around the bottom were eight frogs, each directly under a dragon head. When an earthquake occurred, a ball fell out of a the dragon's mouth into a frog's mouth, making a noise.

He also gave the world's earliest scientific explanation of moon eclipse.

Zhang Heng was a "clean" officer, did not accept any bribes and did not associate with any evil person. Zhang Heng was a man of high intellect. As an officer, he was one the of rare "clean" officers in Chinese history.

  1. http://library.thinkquest.org/C0122767/han/people4.html
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Zhang Heng and the Armilary Sphere:

[ Last edited by changabula at 2007-2-7 01:38 AM ]
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Post time 2007-2-7 18:00:41 |Display all floors
Chien-Shiung Wu
Physicist

Chien-Shung Wu (b. 1912) devised an experiment by which one of the basic laws of physics梥o-called parity conservation梬as overturned, an achievement that helped win a Nobel Prize for two of her colleagues and revolutionized the study of particle physics.

Born and raised in China, Wu studied physics at the prestigious National Central University and then in the United States at the University of California, Berkeley.

She joined the Manhattan Project at Columbia University in 1944, initially focusing on uranium enrichment and neutron research.

Later she helped devise an ultra-low-temperature apparatus with which to study symmetry in relation to nuclear structure, leading to her celebrated demonstration of nonsymmetry in the phenomena of weak nuclear interactions. In these and other experiments Wu, also a professor at Columbia, has combined scientific rigor with the joy and mystery of the creative spirit.

  1. http://www.inventions.org/culture/science/women/chien-shiungwu.html
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Post time 2007-2-7 19:16:46 |Display all floors
An Wang

Achievement:
Invented Magnetic Core Memory, pulse transfer controlling device

An Wang (1920-1990), a Chinese-born American computer scientist, is best known for founding Wang Laboratories and holding over thirty-five patents including patent #2,708,722 for a magnetic pulse transfer controlling device which related to computer memory and was crucial to the development of digital information technology.

Wang Laboratories was founded in 1951 and by 1989 employed 30,000 people and had $3 billion a year in sales, with such developments as desktop calculators and the first word processors.

An Wang was inducted into the National Inventor's Hall of Fame in 1988.


An Wang introduced his first computer product in 1949:

[ Last edited by changabula at 2007-2-7 07:20 PM ]
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Post time 2007-2-7 19:29:54 |Display all floors
Ji Xiaolan

YEAR : 1724 - 1805
DYNASTY : Ching Dynasty


SUMMARY OF ACHIEVEMENT/S :

Ji Xiao-lan was a distinguished scholar and a high ranking official in the imperial court of Emperor Qian Lung of the Ching Dynasty.

He was the chief editor of the encyclopaedic collection of Chinese books known as "Shi Ku Quan Shu". (The Complete Library of The Four Treasuries).

[ Last edited by changabula at 2007-2-7 07:39 PM ]
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Post time 2007-2-7 19:44:04 |Display all floors
Li Shimin 李世民 (599-649)
Emperor Taizong of Tang China


Under his reign, the famous rule of Zhenguan (貞觀之治) took place (his era name was Zhenguan). It was the peak of the Tang Dynasty. Conquered once mighty Eastern Turkic Khanate and allowed Tang to become the major power in the region.


For the thousands of years prior to the downfall of the last emperor of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, the rulers of slave and feudal societies in China had exercised absolute autocracy, wherein a single person had supreme power over the law and the nation. This supreme figure was thus arbiter of the course of the historic development, and therefore the fate of the country, as well as the wellbeing of its population. For thousands of years, ruthless and tyrannical rulers inflicted misery and disaster upon the Chinese nation, and one who was competent and humane was both longed for and cherished by the ordinary people as an embodiment of their hope for the future.

Li Shimin, a preeminent emperor in Chinese history, was born in 598. His father and grandfather had both been high-ranking officials during the Sui Dynasty (581-618). Li's childhood was during a period of turmoil. In 605, when Li was 7, Yang Guang, the second emperor of the Sui Dynasty, ascended the throne. This emperor soon became notorious for his debauched lifestyle and cruelty. He squandered the state treasury on lavish imperial buildings, and forced countless people into corvee labor, all of which eventually led to a peasant uprising in 611.

This uprising signaled rebellion and mutiny throughout China. Li Shimin consequently grew up amidst political turbulence and clique intrigue. In 615, at the age of 17, he urged his father, Li Yuan, then a military commander stationed in Taiyuan, to go with the flow of this historic climax and rise against the Sui emperor. Three years later, Li Yuan became the first emperor of the Tang Dynasty.

Stability and solidarity were the top priorities of this new dynasty, and Li Shimin was obviously endowed with both military and political ingenuity. In the course of helping his father stabilize the nation Li Shimin established a strong military force, as well as a large think-tank of expertise in different fields. In 626, at the age of 28, he succeeded his father as emperor.

Li changed the title of his reign to Zhenguan and retained the throne for 23 years. He brought about a new era that laid foundations for the great prosperity, development and progress with which the Tang Dynasty became associated in later years. The period of his rule, known as the "Zhenguan Governance," is acknowledged as a milestone in Chinese history. This reign has rich connotations, being regarded by historians and politicians alike as the model for successful government, while to ordinary people it is synonymous with a happy life.

  1. http://www.chinavoc.com/history/tang/recollection.htm
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Emperor Taizong of Tang:

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Post time 2007-2-8 01:53:14 |Display all floors
Cheng Dawei

Master of Abuscus


Born in Shuaikou Village of Xiuning County, Cheng Dawei (1533 ~ 1606), Rusi by courtesy name and Binqu by poetic name, was a famous grand master of ancient abacus.

According to The Cheng Genealogy, " Cheng Dawei mastered seal script and was well versed in algorithm", When away from home on business, he would go to consult anyone he heard of to be an expert at calculating figures. And he would purchase a classic at the cost.

He epitomized all the great achievements in abacus before the Ming Dynasty and wrote monumental work General Survey of Algorithm, which has produced a lasting, far-reaching and profound influence, unparalleled by any other mathematical works, as The Brief History of China's Mathematics puts it.

  1. http://www.huangshantour.com/english/ReadNews.asp?NewsID=752
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[ Last edited by changabula at 2007-2-8 01:54 AM ]
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