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Post time 2006-11-25 16:36:50 |Display all floors
Russia is the largest country on earth, covering 17,075,000 square kilometres. Occupying the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia, Russia is washed by the Arctic Ocean on the north and the Pacific Ocean on the east. To the west and south-west, the country has exits to the Atlantic Ocean. Russia spreads over eleven time zones. When it is midnight in Moscow, it is ten o’clock in the morning on the islands of the Bering Sea.
俄罗斯是地球上最大的国家,国土总面积为1707.5万平方公里。横跨欧洲的东部和亚洲的北部,北临北冰洋,东濒太平洋,俄罗斯的西部和西南有支流流入大西洋。东西两端的时差11个小时。莫斯科午夜时分,白令海周边的岛屿却已是上午10点了。

The Russian plain extends throughout the western part of the country, as far as the Urals, which run from the Arctic Ocean to the steppes of Kazakhstan. Beyond the Ural Mountains stretches the West Siberian plain. To the east, between the River Lena and River Yenisei, is the Central Siberian Plateau.
俄罗斯平向西部蔓延,延伸至乌拉尔山脉,该山脉从北冰洋蜿蜒至哈萨克斯坦的大草原。乌拉尔山脉以东是西西伯利亚平原。俄罗斯的东边,也就是在勒拿河和叶尼塞河之间是中西伯利亚高原。
The first Russian national anthem was written by composer Prince Alexander Lvov李沃夫and poet Vasily Zhukovsky. Composed in December 1833, it began with the words God, save the Tsar. In 1918, The Internationale was adopted as the official song of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, later becoming the anthem of the Soviet Union. On 1 January 1944, the new Soviet anthem was played for the first time on the radio. The music was written by composer Alexander Alexandrov and the words were written by poets Sergei Mikhalkov and Gabriel El-Registan. The current national anthem uses the same music with a revised text.
俄罗斯的第一首国歌是由作曲家亚历山大•李沃夫亲王谱曲、由诗人茹科夫斯基填词。 国歌于1833年12月创作完成的,开始采用的歌词是“天佑沙皇”。 1918年,《国际歌》被采用为俄罗斯苏维埃联邦社会主义共和国的国歌,后来也就成了苏联的国歌。 1944年元月1日,新的苏联国歌首次在广播上播放。音乐由作曲家亚历山大•亚历山德罗夫谱写,歌词由诗人谢尔盖•米哈尔科夫和葛布列•艾尔瑞杰斯坦合作填词。当前的国歌采用了同样的音乐,但歌词做了修改。

The first official coat of arms was adopted by Grand Prince Ivan III in the late fifteenth century. In May 1857, the national emblem became a double-headed eagle accompanied by symbols of the various territories of the Russian Empire. The Soviet coat of arms was a globe surrounded by wheatears and ribbons inscribed with the words Workers of the World Unite in the languages of the fifteen national republics. The current coat of arms is a shield and golden double-headed eagle with two crowns holding an orb and sceptre.
15世纪末叶亲王伊凡三世采用了第一件正式的盾徽。1857年5月,国徽为一只双头鹰并配有俄罗斯帝国不同属地的符号。苏联时期的盾徽为球体,四周围绕着麦穗和刻有文字的饰带, 其中的文字为用15个共和国的不同语言写出的“全世界工人阶级团结起来”

1. Flag of the Russian Federation俄罗斯联邦旗
2. Coat of arms of the Russian Federation 俄罗斯联邦的盾徽
3. On the state border国界
4. The Russian constitution was


The Russian plain is bordered on the south by the Caucasian mountain range. The Rivers Ob and Yenisei flow into the Arctic Ocean from the Altai and Sayan Mountains.
俄罗斯平原南边与高加索山脉毗接。鄂毕河和叶尼塞河的源头分别起源于阿尔泰山和萨彦岭,流入北冰洋。
The Sayan Range is bordered on the east by the mountains of the Baikal region. The Verkhoyansk and Chersky Ranges lie to the east of the Central Siberian Plateau. In the Far East, the Sikhote-Alin Range runs parallel to the shore of the Pacific Ocean. The Kamchatka peninsula is also mountainous.
萨彦岭的东边与贝加尔湖区的山脉相邻。维尔霍扬斯克山脉和切尔斯基岭坐落在中西伯利亚高原的东部。在远东,斯科特阿林山脉和太平洋海岸平行延伸。堪察加半岛也是山地。  

The State structure of the Russian Federation is defined by the Constitution passed on 12 December 1993. The Head of State of Russia and the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces is the President, who is elected for a four-year term by secret ballot based on general egalitarian and direct voting law. The Russian State legislative body is the bicameral Federal Assembly (Council of the Russian Federation and the Russian State Duma). Executive powers are held by the Government of the Russian Federation. The Chairman of the Government is appointed by the President with the agreement of the State Duma. According to official figures on 1 January 2000, Russia is inhabited by 145.9 million people and 130 nationalities.
俄罗斯联邦的国家机构是根据1993年通过的联邦宪法进行确定的。 俄罗斯国家的元首和武装部队最高总司令为总统,且总统根据投票平等和直接投票法秘密投票选举产生,其任期为四年。俄罗斯国家立法机关为两院制联邦议会(俄罗斯联邦议院和俄罗斯国家杜马)。俄罗斯联邦政府是俄罗斯联邦的执行权力机构。政府主席由总统和国家杜马协商一致任命。 根据2000年的官方数字,俄罗斯的居民总数达1.459亿,共有130民族。
78.5% of the population lives in the European half of the country. The overwhelming majority of citizens are Russians. 78.5%的人口都生活在国家的欧洲部分。居民的绝大多数为俄罗斯人。











Please translate pages 8-9 42-45 and 184-185 for test first.





42-45
Sergiev Posad does not rank among the oldest towns of the Golden Ring, but it occupies an exceptionally prominent place in Russian culture and history. The very name of the town, meaning Sergius’s Settlement, has a profound sense it is associated with Russia’s most brilliant spiritual leader St Sergius of Radonezh, the saint of the Orthodox Church revered in Russia for many centuries. St Sergius founded in this area a secluded monastic abode. Soon the skete grew into a monastery and a settlement developed around it. The settlement gathered all sorts of people related to the life of the monastery, especially craftsmen, who laid the beginnings of some famous artistic handicrafts flourishing at Sergiev Posad and around it to this day. The picturesque complex of buildings of the Holy Trinity Monastery, or Laura, of St Sergius (laura is one of a few Russia’s most important monasteries to which even the Tsars thought it honourable to make a pilgrimage on foot), which has organically blended with the lovely surrounding scenery, has been shaped in the course of several centuries. The earliest of its structures date back to the early Middle Ages, while one of the latest, the bell-tower, to the 18th century. The vertical竖杆of the Baroque巴洛克风格的bell-tower thrusting upwards does not clash with the whole.
谢尔盖耶夫颇沙德并不在金环古老城镇之列,但是它却在俄罗斯文化和历史中占据相当显著的地位。该镇的名字意思为瑟古斯居地,且意义深远,因为它和俄罗斯最杰出的精神领袖和许多世纪以来都在俄罗斯受到尊敬的东正教会圣人圣塞固斯斯息息相关。圣塞吉阿斯在该地区修建了一所隐僻的僧侣院。 不久僧侣团体发展成为修道院, 而且在修道院周围集聚定居下来。居住区集聚了各式各样的人们,他们的生活都与修道院有关系, 特别是手工艺人,他们为谢尔盖耶夫颇沙德的一些著名的艺术手工艺的繁荣奠定了基础。至圣三位一体修道院景色如画结构,或叫作圣塞固斯的劳拉修道院 (劳拉修道院是俄罗斯最重要的为数不多的俄罗斯修道院,甚至沙皇都认为其可敬, 并徒步前往朝拜) ,该修道院经过若干世纪才具有如此的规模,先已和周围的美丽的风景有机地融为一体。修道院最初的结构可追索到中世纪, 而离现今最近的一个建筑物钟楼也客追索到18世纪。巴洛克风格钟楼上的竖杆高耸空中,与整个建筑物也很协调。

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Post time 2006-11-25 16:39:55 |Display all floors
The role of the monastery is associated not only with spiritual and religious problems but with general historical events, too. The monastery is skirted by the defensive walls, which were erected in the 16th and 17th centuries and proved their might several times. First of all, at the beginning of
the seventeenth century, during the Time of Trouble, the Trinity–St Sergius Monastery withstood a siege by the army of the Polish Lithuanian invaders. At the end of the seventeenth century the young Peter I took shelter within the walls of the laura twice.
修道院的作用不仅与精神和宗教问题息息相关,而且也与普通的历史事件息息相关。修道院四周是防护围墙,均是16和17世纪修建的,其坚固性经受了好几次的考验。首先,在17世纪初期,也就是在“大艰难”期间,至圣三位一体修道院经受了波兰-立陶宛侵略军的围攻。在17世纪末叶,年轻的彼得一世曾两次在劳拉修道院墙内避难。

The unquestionable authority of the founder of the monastery provided from the fourteenth century onwards an influx of the best intellectual and artistic forces, a flood of rich donations from noted statesmen and the richest families. The settlements of Sergiev Posad had many workshops of craftsmen who excelled in making crosses, ladles, silversmiths and other artistic objects. Thanks to all these factors the Treasury of the Holy Trinity Monastery of St Sergius and the State Museum of History and Art in Sergiev Posad possess unique collections of veritable treasures. Of especial interest among them are works by jewellers skilled in various techniques and pieces of embroidery.

修道院的奠基人具有毫无疑问的权威,所以从14世纪起就汇集了最优秀的智力和艺术人才大军,而且著名的政治家和富裕的家庭都慷慨解囊,捐助了大量的资金。谢尔盖耶夫颇沙德住居区有许多的手工艺作坊,手工匠们擅长制作十字架、长柄勺、银器和其他的艺术品。正是这些因素,至圣三位一体修道院的宝库和谢尔盖耶夫颇沙德的国家博物馆收藏有独一无二的货真价实的珍品。其中最令人感兴趣的要数宝石匠采用不同的技巧制作的艺术品和刺绣品。

GOLDEN RING
金环
From the first years of its existence the monastery was the cultural centre where manuscript books were copied and talented writers worked, the most famous of which were Epiphany the Wise and Maxim the Greek. There are many first-rate architectural monuments at Sergiev Posad outside the laura, such as the Chapel of St Paraskeva-over-the-Well – a unique structure of the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries.

从修道院诞生的第一年起,它就是文化中心,里面有人抄写书稿和文人墨客进行创作,其中最著名要算是智者Epiphany和希腊人马克西穆斯。 在劳拉修道院的外边的谢尔盖耶夫颇沙德还有许多一流的建筑纪念碑,比如,井上的帕拉斯基夫小教堂—一座17和18世纪相交期间的独特建筑。

And still the most interesting buildings determining the image of Sergiev Posad can be found in its heart, the laura. The principal feature of the monastery ensemble is the bell-tower, which dominates the town as a whole and is visible even from beyond the towns borders. Its silhouette soaring to the height of more than eighty metres produces an impression of lightness unusual for a structure of the advanced Baroque. The monastery was built in the course of several centuries. In the age of St Sergius the monastery was wooden and according to the available data, only the first Cathedral of the Holy Trinity that has not come down to us was built in stone. The largest structure of the complex is the Cathedral of the Dormition (1559–85) dedicated to the Mother of God especially revered in Russia. The building repeats in its basic proportions and constructions the Cathedral of the Assumption in the Moscow Kremlin that was the central cathedral of the Orthodox Church and was based, in turn, on the forms of the most ancient and highly prized Cathedral of the Dormition in Vladimir. By the north-western corner of the cathedral is situated the not very conspicuous burial vault of the Godunov family. By orders of the Pretender the body of Boris Godunov was taken out of the burial vault in the Cathedral of the Archangel Michael in the Kremlin and after being kept for some time in a Moscow monastery was transferred to the Holy Trinity Monastery of St Sergius that was patronized and generously donated by Boris Godunov.

然而,确立谢尔盖耶夫颇沙德形象的最有趣的建筑就是建在其心脏地带的劳拉修道院。修道院的整体建筑的主体建筑物为钟楼,它在整个小镇占据显著地位,而且甚至在城镇的边界也能清晰可见。它的外部轮廓高达80多米,给人留下先进的巴洛克式建筑非同寻常的明亮印象。修道院历经几个世纪才建成。圣塞吉阿斯时代,修道院为木质结构,但根据现有的数据分析,第一座没有流传至今的至圣三位一体修道院却是用石头切成的。整体建筑的最大建筑物是圣母安息大教堂 (1559–85),是献给俄罗斯特别尊敬的至圣圣母。 该建筑物以基本的比例和结构在莫斯科克里姆林宫的圣母升天大教堂得以重现,圣母升天大教堂为东正教堂的中心大教堂且以弗拉基米尔的最古老和受人尊敬的圣母安息大教堂的结构形式为基础。靠近教堂的西北角坐落着戈多诺夫家族的不很显眼的墓地。根据伪装者的指令,鲍里斯•戈多诺夫的遗体从克里姆林宫的天使长米迦勒大教堂墓地移出,在莫斯科修道院保存一段时间后,又转移到至圣三位一体修道院,因为该修道院就是鲍里斯•戈多诺夫慷慨捐助的。

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Post time 2006-11-25 19:54:11 |Display all floors
1.开始采用的歌词是“天佑沙皇--->歌词以..开始
2. The current coat of arms is a shield and golden double-headed eagle with two crowns holding an orb and sceptre. 漏


3.不久僧侣团体发展成为修道院, 而且在修道院周围集聚定居下来。  (不是僧侣,而是商人,手艺人等等定居)
4.who laid the beginnings of some famous artistic handicrafts flourishing at Sergiev Posad and around it to this day

5. complex of buildings   问题: 建筑群?

6.为数不多的俄罗斯修道院 -->a few没有否定

7.机地融为一体-->浑然一体  建议

8。修道院最初的结构可追索到中世纪, 而离现今最近的一个建筑物钟楼也客追索到18世纪。  这里是指建筑物,最晚和最早都是指structures.

9。 高耸空中--耸立 建议

10。From the first years of   是years不是year

11。而且甚至在城镇的边界也能清晰可见  beyond是超过的含义,这里是说在边界外

12。unusual for a structure of the advanced Baroque  对于这样一个,,,式的建筑来说是不平常的

13。The building repeats in its basic proportions and constructions the Cathedral of the Assumption in the Moscow Kremlin that was the central cathedral of the Orthodox Church and was based, in turn, on the forms of the most ancient and highly prized Cathedral of the Dormition in Vladimir.

短语是: repeat  in ... 在某些方面仿效....

14。the Pretender 大写,是特指

15。 patronized 惠顾.


虽然以上这几点有不同的观点,但我总体感觉,尤其是句子划分处理上非常好,词汇也很丰富

[ Last edited by hly2006 at 2006-11-25 08:08 PM ]

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