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Originally posted by whitney16 at 2006-6-24 21:38
a ? Once I sprayed myself liberally with "OFF" i have little confused,could you explain it clearly? :)
"Off" is a pressurized insect repellent (brand name product of Johnson Wax). They claim having the longest lasting ingredient to provide hours of protection from mosquitoes. Company listed active ingredients as follows: N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide.....14.25%; Other isomers 0.75% Inert ingredients...85.00% For additional information write Hansen S.C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Racine, Wisconsin 53403 USA
I also have some interesting and relevant information for the viewers. Please read the following articles.
Kawartha Lakes, Ontario Mosquito Control
'Natural' Mosquito Repellents:.
What works and what doesn't
Scientific studies of Catnip, soy and other "natural" products
Mosquito repellent fact sheet
Products that do not work
Other biting insects
Catnip, soy and other "natural" mosquito repellents
Because deet, the most effective mosquito repellent known, has adverse health effects on people, attempts have been made to find "natural" repellents.
Jamie Heal of the University of Guelph recently studied a repellent called Blocker (now called Bite Blocker), composed of soy oil and other "natural" products, and found it to be as effective as products containing the lower concentrations of deet. Bite Blocker was recently licensed for sale in Canada, but had not yet been approved for sale in Ontario last time we checked.
Catnip is showing promise in tests conducted at Iowa State University. See http://www.sciam.com/news/082801/2.html
Avoid perfumes and ordinary skin creams, as sweet oils and most perfumes attract mosquitoes.
Repellent Fact Sheet
By James D. Heal, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Ontario (excerpted, quoted by permission)
· Repellents can be registered for use in Canada if they provide greater than 95% protection for at least 30 minutes after application, applied at a rate of 1.0 ml per 600 cm2 of skin (approximate skin area of an average human forearm)
· They fall into two categories: Ø Deet-based Ø Non-deet-based essential plant oils
Deet-based: Repellents containing deet can provide full protection from 2-8 hours, depending on concentration of deet. A 7% deet formulation (e.g. OFF Skintastik) will provide about two hours protection. A 30% deet formulation (e.g. Deep Woods OFF) will provide 4-6 hours protection. A 75% deet formulation...will provide 6-8 hours protection.
Non-deet-based essential plant oils: Repellents containing essential plant oils (e.g. Citronella oil (5-10%) or lavender oil, sometimes used in combination with tea tree oil, coconut oil, almond oil, etc.) will provide 30-60 minutes protection.
· Duration of effectiveness, no matter what kind of product you use, also depends on how much you perspire, which is related to your level of physical activity.
Products That Do Not Protect You From Mosquitoes:
Backyard electrocutors, sonic repellers, scented wrist bands, citronella candles, scented geraniums (Citrosa plant), Avon Skin-So-Soft, garlic oil (eaten or sprayed on vegetation).
· Check to see if product has a P.C.P. (Pest Control Product) number. If it does then that product has been tested in Canada and proven to perform as indicated on label.
· Use product as indicated in instructions on product label for safe and effective use.
Eggs è larvae è pupae (all aquatic) è adults (terrestrial)
· Most overwinter as eggs or adults, depending on genus
· Females require a blood meal to obtain protein to lay eggs
· Females and males feed on flower nectar as an energy source
· Males die soon after mating
· Females may live one to two months and lay multiple egg batches
Blood Feeding Behaviour
· Females are attracted to carbon dioxide and will fly up a concentration gradient to find a host which is exhaling carbon dioxide
· Final host acquisition is attained by using a combination of detection methods, including detection of carbon dioxide, heat (infrared sensing) and host movement (visual sensing)
· Can feed to repletion in less than 3 minutes
Comments on other biting insects
Black flies: Products that work well against mosquitoes usually perform as well or better against black flies.
Stable flies: Higher concentrations of deet (>30%) will protect against stable flies but for much shorter duration times than against mosquitoes.
Deer flies and horse flies: Repellents are not effective against these large biting flies.