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Incredible Secrets of Siberia [Copy link] 中文

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Post time 2016-12-4 12:49:05 |Display all floors
This post was edited by dostoevskydr at 2016-12-4 13:07


Siberia is huge, it stretches from the eastern slopes of the Ural Mountains to the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. Its population density is about three people per square kilometer, it is one of the most sparsely populated places on earth. Nevertheless, it seemed to be a treasure trove for archaeologists. Cool, dry air and permafrost create unique conditions for the preservation of the remains of the deep past. Despite the fact that it seems inhospitable, Siberia was the cradle of mankind.

Shigir idol

In Western Siberia, during excavations at the end of the XIX century, archaeologists discovered the oldest wooden sculpture in the world.Created about 11,000 years ago, the idol is twice as old as the great Egyptian pyramids, and 6,000 years older than Stonehenge. The figure is 2.8 meters high and it has been carved out of the trunk of a 157-year-old larch, which was cut down with stone tools.

The marsh where it was found helped to preserve the idol well. The face of the statue, and the patterns through the body of the idol were also well preserved. Some believe that the small furrows and lines contain encrypted information. It has been suggested that they represent different types of terrain. Perhaps that idol, which once stood at 5.2 meters, was a prototype of a totem.


Amazon that changed her gender

In 1990, archaeologists conducted excavations in the Altai Mountains, and decided that they had discovered the remains of a female warrior. a 2500-year-old teenager with pigtails, who was a part of an elite group of Pazyryk warriors. Buried with shields, battle axes, bows and arrows,the teenager, according to their physical features, was a rider. The ancient Greek writer Hippocrates wrote that among the Scythians there were warriors called Amazons. Many people think that they have finally found the body ofone of these mythical women warriors, however, DNA analysis has refuted this idea.

It turned out that "she" - is "he". At the time of his death, the teenager was about 16 years old. The"Amazon" was buried amid symbols of fertility that were similar to cowrie shells, and amulets. The coffin, wooden pillows and quiver were much smaller than are commonly found in men's graves. The remains of the nine horses, including four with harnesses, tell us about the high status of the teenager. The cause of death of the warrior with a pigtail is a mystery.


Ancient cancer tumor

Many people believe that cancer is a modern disease. For many years, scientists believed that prehistoric humans who were active and ate natural products, lived without cancer. However, the remains of a man from the Bronze Age, who died because of cancer of their prostate, which was found in 2014 in Siberia, refuted this. The oldest discovered benign tumor is about 6,000 years old, and this tumor, with an age of 4500 years,became the oldest cancer case.

The man was found in a small grave in the Pri Baikalsky region of Siberia. Most of the men found in the burial plot, have hunting equipment and fishing gear. However, the man with cancer is different from them. He was found in a fetal position, and had a carved ivory spoon. This gives us the idea that he lived outside normal society. However, there is a possibility that the posture could be related to a slow and agonizing death,which he suffered as a result of the disease.


Idol with changed racial features

Archaeologists believe that the 2400-year-old Siberian stone idol in the times of the early Middle Ages was "racially restructured". Ust-Tasevski idol has expanding nostrils, large, open mouth, mustache and thick beard. Experts believe that about 1500 years ago, made a"plastic surgery" so as an idol looked less like a European but more like Asian.

Archaeologists believe that the Ust-Tasevski idol was madein the Scythian period when residents of the region were mostly of European type. In the days of the early Middle Ages the population of the region of the Angara River receded because of the Mongol invasion. There are signs that the second sculptor was less talented than the author, so he narrowed down idol’seyes. Aligned the nose and changed its contour. Beard and mustache were partially "shaved". Scientists believe that the idol had one more change at the end of the XVII century, after the conquest of Siberia by Russia.In his mouth there was drilled a small conical hole for a pipe.


Bone armor

Archaeologists recently unearthed a set of armor made of bones in Siberia. 3900-year-old protective suit was made of bones of an unknown animal and was buried separately from its owner in wooded western steppes near Omsk. Most of the findings in this area relates to Krotovskaya culture, armor,according to scientists, is made by members of Samus-Seiminskaya culture, which originated in the Altai Mountains, and later migrated to the southwest.
Found armor was in "excellent condition" and it is believed that itcould be brought into the area as a gift, as a result of the exchange, or may have been a war trophy. Protective equipment made of bones was found at a depthof 1.5 meters near the resort, which was rebuilt as the hotel. Presumably, the fact that it was buried without an owner, tells about his connection by some ritual. Armor of such material would require constant care and is believed to belong to the best soldiers.
Bone armor is not a unique feature of the Altai. It is known that the Aleuts,Inuit and Tlingit also wore bone armor.

Contd........Part II

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Post time 2016-12-4 13:00:11 |Display all floors
This post was edited by dostoevskydr at 2016-12-4 13:18

Contd.......Part II


The oldest sewing needles

In the Altai Mountains, archaeologists recently found the oldest sewing needle in the world. The needle, which is 50,000 years old, was discovered in the Denisov Cave and it was made by "Homo archaic" - a precursor of "Homo sapiens". The 7-cm needle has a hole for the thread; it was made from the bones of a large, unidentified bird. Previously,researchers have found the needle in the later layers of the cave, but this -the oldest and the longest of all found.

The oldest previously discovered needles were 40,000 years.It was found in the same layer with the remains of the mysterious relative of"Homo sapiens" - "Denisova hominin", after whom the cave was named. Denisova hominin was more technically advanced than Neanderthals. Hole in the bracelet of the Denisova hominin could only be done with the high speed drill bit, similar to those that are used today.


Okunevskaya noble woman

In Khakassia the remains of the noble woman - representative of an ancient culture Okunevskaya has recently been discovered. Experts consider okunevts as Siberian ethnic group, most related to Native Americans.Untouched burial dates back to XXV and XVIII centuries BC, also contained the remains of a child and a lot of essentials.

In the tomb there were found about 100 ornaments made of animal teeth, instruments made of bones and horns, two flasks, a casket with bone needles and bronze knife. Burial clothes decorated with more than 1,500 beads. Clay censer is decorated with images of the same faces that are inherent to other ancient Siberian mountain cultures. Previously, the purpose of these"masks" have been shrouded in mystery, and now engineers can combine the data about these figures from Okunevskaya burial. The stone slab with the imageof a bull assumes southern origin of Okunevskaya culture. These boards are a rarity in Siberia, but there are a lot of them over Kazakhstan.


Brain surgery 3,000 years ago

In 2015, during the construction of the oil pipeline"Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean-2", archaeologists discovered the burial of 3,000 years old, in which there was a skull with traces of brain surgery.

The patient died at the age of 30 to 40 years. Parts of the skull taken for analysis showed traces of surgery. Its open parietal bone showed signs of healing, it is assumed that man lived for a certain period of time after trepanation. Experts believe that the death was caused by post-operative inflammation.

Usual painkillers such as opiates do not grow in the region,but in ancient Siberia, there was no shortage of psychotropic substances.Juniper and thyme were used in shamanic practice, as analgesics, amanit as were powerful hallucinogens. In the region there was a lot of hemp, and it is often found in burials. It is likely that in order to bring the patient into a state of altered consciousness, which allowed to perform the operation, they could use marijuana, hallucinogenic mushrooms, juniper, thyme and shamanic dance.


Dean and Yuan

In 2015, in the Siberian permafrost researchers found two frozen young lions. Cubs-twins, were named as Dina and Yuan, presumably, are about 57,000 years old. They are representatives of cave lions, which became extinct about 10 thousand years ago. They were brother and sister, and they were from one to two weeks, when their lair fell down. Opaque white liquid,found in their stomachs may be the oldest milk in the world.

Cave lions lived in Eurasia, Alaska and northern Canada in the era of the Middle and Late Pleistocene. The researchers hope that the young lions will help to establish the reason why this subspecies became extinct.Most experts believe that these ancient predators were exterminated because of their skins.

The cloning expert of South Korea's Hwang Woo-Suk plans to reproduce the cave lions. He has already made progress in restoring the mammoth. His team will try to keep the samples as long as possible, and they hope that cloning technology comes to the possibility of restoring the original of from the remains.


A couple held hands for 5,000 years

Archaeologists have recently discovered the Siberian couple who laid holding hands for 5000 years. Skeletons of the Bronze Age, belonged tohigh-ranking official and his wife or lover. Discovered on the shore of Lake Baikal pair belongs to the ancient Glazkovskaya culture. The burial contained a ring of rare white jade, pendants from the bones of red deer and musk deer teeth, 50-inch jade knife and an unidentified metal object, which was stored in the bag between the man's feet.

The pair was found lying on their back. Their heads are turned to the West, but the hands are joined. Men's skeleton preserved completely. Unfortunately, rodents destroyed the upper part of the female skeleton. Appointment of the large jade knife lying near woman is unknown. The bodies were found in the ancient sacred burial overlooking the lake. In order to curb looters, the exact place of burial is kept in secret.


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