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The Changbai Mountains

Viewed 1392 times 2017-6-2 15:31 |Personal category:Translation|System category:Others| marriage, perfect, people, entire, couple

The Changbai Mountains, source of Yalu river, Songhua river and Tumen river, are the cradle of Manchu and its culture. Changbai, by its name, has a wonderful implication of perfect marriage in which a couple stay in love of each other throughout their entire life, even when their hair turns grey, giving the will and praise of the loyalty and perfection of love people wish to have. 

 

With 1964 square kilometres of its total area and 758 square kilometres of core zone, the Changbai Mountains are around 1300 kilometres long and around 400 kilometres wide, having its highest peak of 2749 metres high above the sea level located in the territory of the North Korea and Baiyun peak which is of 2691 metres high above the sea level, the highest  in northeast China.   

 

The Changbai Mountains, on general basis, relate to the main peaks and ranges in the east upland of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces, stretching ranges in eastern Russia and Korea peninsula. However, on narrow basis, the Changbai Mountains refer to the volcanic mountain(below  is named the Changbai Mountain) in the southeast of Baishan city, (127°40' to 128°16' east, 41°35' to 42°25' north), which is shared by both China and North Korea from each side.  

 

By their vertical vegetation and volcanic landscape, the Changbai Mountains are one of the earliest national nature reserve written in China National Natural and Cultural Heritage List. In 2010, they were successively designated as the first National Nature Reserve, the first AAAAA(top level) National Tourist Attraction, the United Nations’ ‘man and biosphere’ Natural Reserve and International Level A Nature Reserve. The Changbai Mountains with their Tianchi(volcanic lake), waterfalls, snow sculpture, immense forest, etc., recorded in Guinness Book of Records, were regarded in China as one of the ten most renowned mountains, one of the five largest lakes, one of the ten largest forests etc. The Changbai Mountains have outstanding universal values, excellent natural qualities and abundant cultural connotations in ecology, biology, geology, history, etc..

 

 The Changbai Mountains are composed of a number of Northeast - Southwest parallel folds, faults, mountains and basins. However, the Changbai Mountain is a huge duplex dormant volcano, with a slightly irregular oval-shaped outer-ring of the lava plateau. The long axis is about 140 km, a northern extension to the East; the short axis is about 120 km. Three large basaltic eruption formed the plateau and mountain from the late Cretaceous, Miocene and Pliocene to Pleistocene. The original form of early eruption has been destroyed, the mid eruption formed the broad plateau, and the late eruption except forming the Changbai Mountain, mostly buried in the valley. The thickness of the three stages of eruption is about 500 ~ 600 metres, a total area of 4500 square kilometres. The Changbai Mountain was formed in the late Pliocene by alkaline quartz trachyte. When coming to the Quaternary period, there were a lot of mafic lava eruption as well. It was recorded that the Changbai Mountain erupted in 1597, 1668 and 1702. The broad circular crater on the top of the mountain is filled with water, which is called Tianchi Lake. Because of the unique geological structure of the Changbai Mountains, they form a wonderful landscape different from other mountains. They have 16 mountains higher than 2500 meters above the sea level.

 

There are 1225 species in the Changbai Mountains, which belong to 73 orders and 219 families. Among them, 387 species are of forest insect pests, belonging to 6 orders and 48 families; 94 species are of natural enemies of forest insects, belonging to 7 orders and 29 families; 744 species are of vertebrates, belonging to 60 orders and 142 families; 43 species are under special national protection, including 6 animals under first-class national protection, such as Siberian tiger, leopard, deer, sable, black stork and golden eagle, and 37 animals under second-class national protection, such as Chinese merganser, jackal, black bear, brown bear, otter, lynx, red deer, Qingyang (goral), osprey,  bee hawk, goshawk, sparrow hawk, Tetrastes bonasia, etc..

 

By the end of 2000, in the Changbai Mountains, there had been, 368 solid ore producing areas and 132 water-vapor ore producing areas. These minerals are classified into 9 industrial categories ---- 1, energy minerals: coal, oil shale, uranium; 2, ferrous metal minerals: iron, manganese, titanium, vanadium; 3, non-ferrous metal minerals: copper, lead, zinc, nickel, cobalt, magnesium, tungsten, molybdenum, mercury, antimony; 4, precious metal minerals: gold and silver; 5, rare mineral, rare earth, dispersed element mineral: zirconium, heavy rare earth oxides, monazite, xenotime, gallium, cadmium, selenium and tellurium; 6, metallurgical auxiliary and non-metallic mineral: kyanite, andalusite, fluorite, flux limestone, dolomite, quartzite, quartz, refractory clay; 7, chemical raw materials and non-metallic minerals: sulfur (pyrite, Ban Shengliu), calcium carbide limestone, arsenic, boron, phosphorus, alunite, peat; 8, building materials and other non-metallic mineral: graphite, piezoelectric crystal, crystal melting, wollastonite, talc, asbestos, mica, feldspar, garnet, Tou Huishi, zeolite, gypsum, calcite, gem (olivine) , cement with limestone, marl (Songhua stone), glass with sandstone, diatomite, kaolin, illite clay, ceramic clay, bentonite, cement clay, nepheline syenite, ornamental gabbro, diorite, granite, basalt, andesite, volcano pumice, volcano slag, ornamental marble, marble; 9, water-vapor minerals: groundwater , mineral water.

 

In Baishan city, the Changbai Mountain has a temperate continental mountain climate by the affection of monsoon, and obvious vertical climate changes. By having many clouds, large winds and low atmospheric pressure as its general feature, the Changbai Mountain has long cold winter, short cool summer, dry and windy spring, and foggy and cool autumn. Its average annual temperature is between -7 and 3 degrees Celsius. The average temperature in July is not more than 10 degrees centigrade. January is the coldest month, with the average monthly temperature of about minus 20 degrees Celsius, and the lowest temperature has appeared below minus 44 degrees Celsius. The annual sunshine duration of the mountain is less than 2300 hours, but for the peak only about 1440 hours. The Snow depth is usually 50 cm, up to 70 cm in individual places. The annual precipitation is between 700 and 1400 millimeters, and the precipitation from June to September accounts for 60 - 70% of the annual precipitation. It has a wind scale of over 8 grade for 269 days, the average annual wind speed is 11.7 meters / sec., 165 days in Wusong( a scenery that frost is clung on to branches of pines and bushes), 265 days of mountain fog, and about 100 days of frost free.  

 

 

To the east of the Changbai Mountains, 15 frontier posts are set up along the 1334 km border line of China and North Korea. The region including Yanbian city, Baishan city, Tonghua citi, Dandong city, etc., forms a whole shield and buffer zone given great significance and responsibility to safeguard national unity and national security in border areas. As the increasing status of politics and economy in Northeast Asia over a decade, it has become a hot spot around the world. Since China’s northeast border areas are in the Northeast Asia Center, the region has vital strategic position.

 

Changbai Mountain national natural reserve, with its magic natural scenery and ecological environment, has its main characteristics of tourism resources, such as spectacular volcanic landscape, unique water and mountain landscape, singular snow scenery, widely distributed volcanic springs, waterfalls and lakes, large variety of animal and plant resources, cultural landscape, historical relics, unique folks customs, etc.. Its waters and mountains accompany with ecology, making it a better combination of resourses, adding radiance and beauty to each other.

 

The Changbai Mountain in the Spring and Autumn period (770BC-221BC) was called "no salt mountain", later in the Northern Wei Dynasty (386-557) "Taibai", in the Sui and Tang Dynasties  (581-907) "Baishan" or "Taibai". In the Liao dynasty (916-1125), it was known as “the Changbai Mountain" in Chinese language, and the name is still being used down to today. The different names of the Changbai Mountain in history reflect the understanding to the Changbai Mountain from the ancestors of the Chinese people's, and also reflect the state of the Changbai Mountain's possession. The Changbai Mountain is the birthplace of Manchu. The word "no salt" coming from the ancestors of Manchu, conforms to its background that the ancestors of Manchu have lived  at the place and unique characteristics of the Changbai Mountain. The Jurchen regime set up in the northeast, treating the Changbai Mountain as a "prosperous land", and "old country town". Some people near the reserve still follow many Manchu customs and habits. The Changbai Mountain district is also a gathering place for Korean minorities. Traveling along with many Korean villages, the rich folk culture of Korean nationality adds a beautiful scenic line to the Changbai Mountain nature reserve. Its unique ethnic customs and cultural history provide the conditions for the development of folk custom tourism and culture research.

(Opinions of the writer in this blog don't represent those of China Daily.)


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  • Time 2018-4-10 19:32

    we hold same point about time

  • How to Promote Chinese Culture 2017-11-6 13:25

    AndrewHLi: agreed
    You agree with him? Think again.
    Places where winter was extremely cold simply could not be settled by people subsisting on sowing and planting.

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