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A Brief Introduction of Supercapacitors

Viewed 3023 times 2015-6-13 10:34 |System category:Others

A famous journalist chaijing had made a public report:under the dome.From her speech ,we get know that the fossil fuel and coal's burning is the main reason leading to haze wheather.However ,industrial producitons and vehicles and people's daily life can not run normally without these energy resources .what if one day a magic tool could store and deliver renewable energy,for example the wind and solar energy.Then these environment friendly resources could become available and  complement even take the place of fossil fuel and coals.In that way ,the blue and clear sky will reemerge in our sight.
i am sure all of you are looking forward to the magic tool's appearance.Luckily,this magic tool had been made and come into service.Science and technology researchers call the magic tool supercapacitor.
Today ,i would like to talk to you about the supercapacitors.First of all ,i will tell you about the development of supercapacitors.
Dating back to ancient Greek World,people find amber can adsorb something slight as feather after being rubbed with fur.Charges can accumulate on solids was known since ancient times.So the solids seem to be a capacitor storing charges.This is the earliest accounts of capacitor.But this discovery did not convert to applications in a long time subsequently because of low energy and poor manufacture technology.
With the experts' progressively research,numerous noble characteristics about capacitors are exposured.In 1957,the first patent for electrochemical capacitor was registered by General Electric in America.In 1971,Nippon Electric Company(NEC) in japan is the earlist one to make true commercial devices with these techniques,called them supercapacitor.From then on ,supercapacitors practical applications have a quickly and widely development .Nowadays,people put batteries and capacitors into one category.Both of them are named after Electrochemical Energy Storage(EES) devices.
Supercapacitor can be divided into two types from formation mechanism.As described above,devices store charge through the adsorption of electrolyte ions onto the surface without chemical reactions happening.so the electrode/ions/electrolyte in one side are like a sandwich .two sides accumulating can result in a supercapacitor.this type of charge storage are called electric double layer capacitors(EDLCs) .EDLCs usually use the carbon material as electrode due to the combination of high conductivity and large surface areas.
With the rapid development of EDLCs,another kinds of supercapacitor are being widely researched and exploited.Since this kinds of supercapacitor involved chemical reactions and has capacitor’s behaviors ,it termed pseudocapacitor.pseudocapacitors usually use transition metal oxides to be electrode.Compared with EDLCs,pseudocapacitor has a higher energy density ,but it sacrifice its power density at the same time.
EES in the form of batteries and supercapacitors are widely used for powering the portable electronics and transportation in our society .look at this table ,Compared with batteries ,supercapacitors characterized as high-power density,excellent cycle stability ,and quick charge-discharge capability. Through these three performance index ,we can estimate wheather the EES is superior or inferior.Power density,it refers to that how fast the car can run ;Cycle stability,it determines the car’s service life;Charge-discharge capability,it shows that how long it will cost in charging the car.
In order to apply these technologies into practical energy storage devices,co-workers devote themselves to applications exploiting.Fortunately, many desirable true device were manufactured  over the past decade.
According to its excellent performances, it aroused considerable interest in applications in military filed ,electric vehicles ,wind power generation ,solar cells and electronic products.electricity from solar,wind power generation is unsustained and unstable,so its output needs to be regulated by large energy storage equipments.the energy storage systems should be equipped with big storage capability,long service time and feasible using range .However ,batteries can not meet these requirements,so the supercapacitor play a significant role in this filed.in military field,supercapacitors are able to power missile,aircraft and submarine.meanwhile, The detonation of a bomb needs supercapacitors to provide a strong current instantaneously.supercapacitors are very suitable for wireless portable devices,such as notebook computer.in addition to this ,it also has a wide application prospect in consumer electronic products.except of these application fields,supercapacitors are capable of different kinds of vehicles and ships.
As you can see,the technology’s development on supercapacitors is a long period.A new finding need us to expore and research consistently.Then,it makes our life more convenient and colourful at last

(Opinions of the writer in this blog don't represent those of China Daily.)


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